• 18 U.S.C. §2256
  • 18 U.S.C. §1466A
  • 18 U.S.C. §2252
  • 18 U.S.C. §2256(8)(B))

Adler, A. (2001). The perverse law of child pornography. Columbia Law Review, 101, 209-273.

Agustina, J., & Gomez-Duran, J. (2012). Sexting: Research criteria of a globalized social phenomenon. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(6), 1325-1328.

Akdeniz, Y. (2013). Internet child pornography and the law: National and international responses. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Alexy, E. M., Burgess, A. W., & Baker, T. (2005). Internet offenders: Traders, travelers, and combination trader-travelers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(7), 804-812.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing

Ayood, M. F. (1978). The littlest victims. The Missouri Police Chief, Winter: 19-22.

Blanchard, R. (2010). The DSM diagnostic criteria for pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(2), 304-316.

Bourke, M. L., & Hernandez, A. E. (2009). The 'Butner Study' redux: A report of the incidence of hands-on child victimization by child pornography offenders. Journal of Family Violence, 24(3), 183-191.

Burke, D. D. (1997). Criminalization of virtual child pornography: A constitutional question. The Harvard Journal on Legislation, 34, 439-472.

C-SPAN. (2012). Exploitation of Children over the Internet, Day 1. Retrieved from https://

Child Pornography Prevention Act of 1996 (CPPA), Pub. L. No. 104-208 (1996)

Danet, B. (1998). Text as mask: Gender, play, and performance on the Internet. In S. G. Jones (Ed.) Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting computer-mediated communication and community (pp. 129-158). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Eke, A. W., Seto, M. C., & Williams, J. (2011). Examining the criminal history and future offending of child pornography offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 35(6), 466-478.

Elliott, I. A., & Beech, A. R. (2009). Understanding online child pornography use: Applying sexual offense theory to internet offenders. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(3), 180-193.

Faust, E., Bickart, W., Renaud, C., & Camp, S. (2014). Child pornography possessors and child contact sex offenders: A multilevel comparison of demographic characteristics and rates of recidivism. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment. OnlineFirst Version: DOI: 10.1177/1079063214521469.

Groth, A. N., Burgess, A. W., Birnbaum, H. J., & Gary, T. S. (1978). A study of the child molester: Myths and realities. Journal of the American Criminal Justice Association, 41(1), 17-22.

Henkin, L. (1963). Morals and the constitution: The sin of obscenity. Columbia Law Review, 63(3), 391-414.

Howitt, D. (1995). Paedophiles and sexual offences against children. Chichester: Wiley.

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Jacques, I. (2014, October 17). Could your teen face child porn charges? The Detroit News. Retrieved December 20, 2014 from

Krone, T. (2004). A typology of online child pornography offending. Australian Institute of Criminology.

Lam, A., Mitchell, J., & Seto, M. C. (2010). Lay perceptions of child pornography offenders 1. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice/La Revue canadienne de crimi- nologie et de justice penale, 52(2), 173-201.

Lanning, K. V. (2001). Child molesters: A behavioral analysis. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Washington, DC.

Lenhart, A. (2009). Teens and sexting: How and why minor teens are sending sexually suggestive nude or nearly nude images via text messages. Washington, DC: Pew Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved July 29, 2012 from http://www.pewinternet. org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx.

Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., Ricketts, M. L., & Freiburger, T. L. (2011). An assessment of the training and resources dedicated nationally to investigation of the production of child pornography. Policing, 5(1), 23-32.

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Miller, L. (2013). Sexual offenses against children: Patterns and motives. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(5), 506-519.

Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L. M., & Wolak, J. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics, 129(1), 13-20.

Mitchell, K. J. & Jones, L. M. (2013). Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children. Crimes against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.

O'Brien, S. (1983). Child pornography. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.

O'Connell, R. (2001). Paedophiles networking on the Internet. In Arnaldo, C. A. (Ed.) Child abuse on the Internet: Ending the silence (pp. 65-79). UNESCO Publishing/Berghahn Books

Ost, S. (2002). Children at risk: Legal and societal perceptions of the potential threat that the possession of child pornography poses to society. Journal of Law and Society, 29(3), 436-460.

Ost, S. (2009). Child pornography and sexual grooming: Legal and societal responses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Paul, B., & Linz, D. G. (2008). The effects of exposure to virtual child pornography on viewer cognitions and attitudes toward deviant sexual behavior. Communications Research, 35(1), 3-38.

Richards, D. A. (1974). Free speech and obscenity law: Toward a moral theory of the First Amendment. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 123(1), 45-91.

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Seto, M. C. (2010). Child pornography use and internet solicitation in the diagnosis of pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(3), 591-593.

Seto, M. C., Cantor, J. M., & Blanchard, R. (2006). Child pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 610-615.

Seto, M. C., & Eke, A. W. (2005). The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17(2), 201-210.

Steiker, C. S. (2013). Lessons from two failures: Sentencing for cocaine and child pornography under the federal sentencing guidelines in the United States. Law & Contemporary Problems, 76, 27-52.

Sykes, G. M. & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22(6), 664-670.

Taylor, M., Holland, G., & Quayle, E. (2001). Typology of pedophilic picture collections. The Police Journal, 74, 97-107.

U.S. Sentencing Commission (2010). Results of survey of United States district judges: January 2010 through March 2010. Federal Sentencing Report, 23, 296.

Walsh, W., Wolak, J., & Finkelhor, D. (2013). Prosecution dilemmas and challenges for child pornography crimes: The Third National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (NJOV-3). Durham, NH: Crimes Against Children Research Center.

Webb, L., Craissati, J., & Keen, S. (2007). Characteristics of Internet child pornography offenders: A comparison with child molesters. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 19(4), 449-465.

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., & Mitchell, K. J. (2005). Child-pornography possessors arrested in Internet-related crimes. National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Obtained on January 7, 2016 from

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., & Mitchell, K. J. (2011). Child pornography possessors: Trends in offender and case characteristics. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23(1), 22-42.

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., & Mitchell, K. (2012). Trends in arrests for child pornography possession: The Third National Juvenile Online Victimization Study (NJOV-3). Durham, NH: Crimes against Children Research Center.

Wortley, R. K., & Smallbone, S. (2006). Child pornography on the Internet. US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.

Court Cases

Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition, 535 U.S. 234 (2002).

Free Speech Coalition v. Reno, 98 F.3d 1083 (9th Cir. 1999).

Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973).

New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 747 (1982).

Osborne v. Ohio, 495 U.S. 103 (1990).

Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S. 557 (1969).

The PROTECT Act of 2003 (Pub.L. 108-21, 117 Stat. 650, S. 151). United States v. Tucker, 305 F.3d 1193 (2002).

United States v. Whorley, 550 F.3d 326 (4th Cir. 2008).

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