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DEFINITIONS

Child Pornography: Material visually depicting the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents. This can include photographic, film, or other visual representations.

Combination Trader-Travelers: Child pornographers who trade child pornography, as well as travel across state and/or national boundaries to sexually abuse or molest children.

Computer forensics: assessment of computers and computer-related media for evidence of crimes.

Cyber Crime: Any criminal act involving computers, networks, or the Internet.

DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition): A publication by the American Psychiatric Association that provides a list and diagnosis criteria of all the recognized mental disorders.

Downward Departures: Sentences issued by judges that are less severe than the recommended sentence under Federal Sentencing Guidelines.

Dual Offenders: Sex offenders who commit child pornography and child sexual abuse concurrently.

Dynamic (Risk) Factors: Factors that will change throughout one's life depending on one's situation. These include attitude towards work and employment status.

Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Rules that set uniform sentencing policy for defendants convicted of serious felonies.

Grooming: The process of befriending and establishing an emotional connection with children for the purpose of sexually abusing them.

Manga: A style of comic books created in Japan and developed prior to the twentieth century.

Mens Rea: An element of criminal responsibility referring to a guilty mind or wrongful purpose.

Miller Test: A set of three criteria that material must meet in order for it to be considered pornography.

Obscenity: Any statement, act, or material which strongly offends against prevailing moral standards (though not necessarily legal standards) of that time.

Pedophilia/Pedophile: A psychiatric disorder where afflicted individuals exhibit primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children (under the age of 12).

Phallometric Assessment: A method of measuring male sexual arousal to both legal and illegal sexual stimuli.

Predatory Crime: A broad range of violent crimes against another person, such as murder, robbery or sexual assault.

Prurient Interests: To have or to encourage excessive interest in sexual matters.

Recidivism: An individual's return or relapse into criminal behavior, often after having received sanctions or punishment for previous criminal behavior.

Static Factors: Factors that will remain stable throughout one's life. These include factors such as age at first sexual experience and whether one has been victimized as a child.

Techniques of Neutralization: Justifications or rationalizations for violating society's norms and/or committing crimes.

Typology: Classification system whereby similar individuals or observations are grouped together. Individuals within a group are considered to be very similar, while groups tend to be very distinct.

Virtual Child Pornography (also known as pseudo child pornography): Pornographic material that does not include actual images of children, but creates the illusion of sexual exploitation.

 
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