# Post-Planck cosmology

Cosmic inflation IntroductionInflation basicsDensitiesLengths and fluctuationsEternal inflationEntropy, tuning, and equilibrium in cosmologyClassical and quantum probabilities in the multiverseDe Sitter equilibrium cosmologyConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesThe evolution of the large-scale structure of the universe: beyond the linear regimeIntroductionThe single-flow Vlasov-Poisson equationThe Vlasov equationSingle-flow approximationThe curl modesThe linear theoryThe linear modesThe Green functionsThe general background caseThe two-fluid caseModes and statisticsThe origin of stochasticityStatistical homogeneity and isotropyMoments and cumulantsMoment and cumulant generating functionsThe nonlinear equationsA field representation of the nonlinear equations of motionDiagrammatic representationsScaling of solutionsTime flow equationsThe infrared domain and the eikonal approximationThe IR behavior of the 1-loop corrections to the power spectrumThe eikonal approximationExtended Galilean invariance from the equivalence principleThe Г-expansionThe general formalism and theoremThe case of gravitational dynamicsThe RPT formulationThe MPTbreeze and RegPT formulationPerformances of perturbation theory at NNLOMode coupling structureScalings in the long-wave mode regimeKernels and integrandsGeneral convergence properties in the UV domainAlternative perturbation theory schemesLagrangian perturbation theoryThe Zel’dovich approximation and higher-order solutionsFrom displacement fields to power spectraOther observablesThe inverse Laplace transformThe Edgeworth expansionCumulants in spherical cellsDirect calculation of low-order cumulantsSpherical collapseThe tree-order cumulant generating function as a Legendre transform of the initial momentsDensity PDFs and profiles with spherical cellsReconstructing the density PDFsTwo-cell cumulant generating functionsThe expected density slope and profileConclusion and perspectivesAcknowledgmentsReferencesThe Planck missionFrom wishes and hopes to bits on the groundThe Planck challengeFrom bits to mapsFrom maps to CMB statistical characteristicsCMB map cleaningPlanck CMB spectra and likelihoodPlanck CMB lensing spectrum and likelihoodCMB cosmological consequences (some)The base ACDM modelExtensions to ACDMConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesThe cosmological constant problem: why it's hard to get dark energy from microphysicsThe problemHow would the vacuum gravitate?Cosmology: what must be explained?The naive ‘old’ CC problemA more effective formulation of the ‘old’ CC problemCriteria for a successful solutionOther CC problemsPossible approachesRoads well travelledHead in the sandAnthropic argumentsSymmetries?Modifying gravity?A way forward?The extradimensional loopholeDoubling down: supersymmetric extra dimensionsReformulating the cosmological constant problemOpportunities and worriesSummaryAcknowledgementsReferencesBeyond ACDM cosmologyIntroductionThe cosmological constant problemWhy screen?Screening mechanisms: a brief overviewChameleonsSpherically symmetric source and thin-shell effectExperimental/observational testsGalileonsGalileon basicsSolution around spherically symmetric sourcePerturbations around the spherically symmetric backgroundObservational testGeneral galileonsSummaryAcknowledgmentsReferencesInflationary cosmology after PlanckIntroductionBrief history of inflationChaotic inflation: the simplest modelsInitial conditions in the simplest models of chaotic inflationSolving the cosmological problemsCreation of matter after inflation: reheating and preheatingQuantum fluctuations and density perturbationsUniverse or multiverse?Eternal inflationInitial conditions for low-scale inflationLow-scale inflation and the topology of the universeInitial conditions in models with several noninteracting scalarsInitial conditions in models with several interacting scalarsInflation and observationsChaotic inflation in supergravityCosmological attractorsStarobinsky modelChaotic inflation in the theories with nonminimal coupling to gravityUniversal cosmological attractorsUnitarity bound?Superconformal attractorsChaotic inflation from conformal theory: T-modelUniversality of conformal inflationMultifield conformal attractorsInflation as a conformon instabilityx = л/б conformal gaugea = 1 conformal gaugeRelation between gaugesInterpretation and consequences: inflation as the conformon instabilityToward inflation in string theoryde Sitter vacua in string theoryInflation, vacuum stabilization, and the scale of supersymmetry breaking in string theoryThe inflationary multiverse, the string theory landscape, and the Anthropic PrincipleConclusionsNote addedAcknowledgmentsReferencesLarge-scale structure observationsClustering statisticsThe over-density fieldThe correlation functionThe power spectrumHigher-order statisticsAnisotropic statisticsThe comoving matter power spectrumThe matter-radiation equality scaleNeutrino massesBaryonsPhysical processesLinear structure growthSpherical collapsePress—Schechter theoryGalaxy biasGalaxy survey basicsOverview of galaxy surveysMeasuring overdensitiesMeasuring the power spectrumMeasuring the correlation functionReconstructing the linear densityLyman-a forest surveysObservational effectsProjection and the Alcock—Paczynski effectRedshift-space distortionsJoint AP and RSD measurementsPrimordial non-GaussianitySummaryMaking cosmological-model inferencesExploring parameter spaceModel selectionFuture surveysThe next five yearsFive to 20 years timeFisher methodsPredictions for future surveysAcknowledgementsReferencesParticle physics and cosmologyIntroductionStandard Model of particle physics and cosmologyHistory of particle physics and cosmologyStandard Model of particle physicsSM fieldsSM parametersThe electroweak fitLHC: collider, experiments, and physics goalsHiggs and cosmologyThe Higgs discoveryProperties of the Higgs bosonHiggs and the early universeThe Higgs discovery calls for new physics?Beyond the Standard Model and cosmologySupersymmetry searches at the LHCMinimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and natural spectrumSearch strategy at the LHCSUSY Higgs searchesDirect searches for gluinos and First- and Second-generation squarksDirect searches for third-generation squarksDirect searches for EWKinos and sleptonsStatus of R-parity conserved SUSY after LHC Run IEscape routes: long-lived particles, R-parity violation, and othersSearches for other natural theories at the LHCLarge extra dimensionsWarped extra dimensionsComposite Higgs modelsPreliminary conclusions on searches for natural theoriesOther beyond the Standard Model searches at the LHCImpact of LHC results on dark matter searchesNeutrinos and baryogenesisThe future of experimental particle physicsConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesGalaxy formationIntroductionInitial mass function and star formationStar formation: general considerationsThe first starsInitial stellar mass functionFrom linear theory to galaxy formationLinear theoryNonlinear theoryHalo mass functionComparison with observationsFrom mass to light: reconciling theory with observationsGalaxy luminosity functionSupernova-driven windsEntropy barrierTidal disruptionThe core/cusp problemCosmic reionization by dwarf galaxiesComputational methods in galaxy formationA global star formation lawDisk galaxiesFormation of disk galaxies and spin alignmentBulgeless disk galaxiesThe role of AGNFeedback from supermassive black holesModes of AGN feedbackPositive feedback from AGNSMBH formationGas accretion in galaxiesThe two modes of star formationThe SFR main sequence and starburst galaxiesEvolution of early-type galaxiesMultiple stellar populations and the AGN connectionSpecific star formation rateEfficiency of galaxy formation and downsizing of galaxiesCurrent issuesDwarf galaxiesMassive galaxiesAcknowledgmentsReferencesInflationary observables and string theoryIntroduction and motivationsInflation: generalitiesInflationary dynamics and high-energy physicsField range and tensor mode signatureString theory as an ultraviolet completion: effective action, stress-energy sources, and symmetriesA sample of string-theoretic inflationary mechanisms and signaturesAxions, chaotic inflation, and tensor modesPhenomenology of axion inflationGravitationally redshifted D-brane inflation and stringsDBI inflation and equilateral non-GaussianityPlanck-suppressed operators from hidden sectorsEntry and exit physicsWhat is the framework?AcknowledgmentsReferencesComputational cosmologyCosmological simulationsGeneral contextPeriodic universes versus zoomed-in haloesCosmological initial conditionsDark matter as a collisionless fluidThe Vlasov—Poisson equationsN-body techniquesTree codesAdaptive particle—meshHigh-performance computingMoore’s law versus new algorithmsMassively parallel computingTowards exascale computing?Baryons as a collisional fluidThe Euler—Poisson equationsComputational fluid dynamicsRadiative processesCoupling radiation to hydrodynamicsRadiative transfer techniquesGalaxy formation physicsStar formation and stellar feedbackSupermassive black hole feedbackBeyond Planck: precision computational cosmologyAccuracy of N -body techniquesModified gravity modelsThe impact of baryonsReferencesPlanck 2013 and superconformal symmetryIntroductionSuperconformal theory underlying supergravityCanonical superconformal supergravityThe role of the sgoldstino in models with W = Sf (X0, X1)Spontaneous breaking of the Weyl and U(1) ^-symmetriesDeformation of CSSDeviation from the critical point Дсг = ± 6 [16]Deviation from the critical point Дсг = 0, T-models [20]Superconformal a-attractorsDiscussionAcknowledgmentsReferences