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Late Inka Occupation

The second Inka occupation in the Western Plaza was characterized by the abandonment of the ushnu stone platform. This is signaled by the deposition of a layer of trash on top of the ushnu platform and its surroundings. During this time it is also likely that the gate of the Western Plaza was blocked. There was also a shift in the composition of the ceramics in the midden, considering the increasing dominance of Guarani-Chiriguano

Northern stratigraphic profile of the Western Plaza in the Cuzcotuyo complex

Figure 7.3. Northern stratigraphic profile of the Western Plaza in the Cuzcotuyo complex.

Chronology and distribution of ceramic styles in the Western and Eastern Plazas (Cuzcotuyo complex)

Figure 7.4. Chronology and distribution of ceramic styles in the Western and Eastern Plazas (Cuzcotuyo complex).

Chronology and distribution of different types of ceramic paste in the Western and Eastern Plazas (Cuzcotuyo complex)

Figure 7.5. Chronology and distribution of different types of ceramic paste in the Western and Eastern Plazas (Cuzcotuyo complex).

Ceramic styles in the Khosko Toro region

Figure 7.6. Ceramic styles in the Khosko Toro region: Parapeti Ungulate, Guarani style (left); ceramics from the eastern tropical savannas (right); corrugated pottery (top right); stamped, impressed, deep-incised, and finger-printed pottery (bottom right).

wares, along with eastern lowlands pottery (Figures 7.4. and 7.5). Common in the Guarani tradition, this pottery had a red slip and crushed sherds used as temper (Condorillo Crushed Sherds variant), while other forms were decorated with incisions and fingernail imprints (Parapeti Fingernail variant). Most of the Guarani ceramics were small containers. Among these, globular vessels were the most distinctive. They often had a central body depression and were profusely decorated with fine fingernail impressions. In fact, similar vessels are documented in specialized contexts like Guarani burial areas from Brazil and Paraguay (Brochado Proenza 1973; Esquerdo 1997; La Salvia and Brochado 1989; Susnik 1959).

In Cuzcotuyo, the overall increase of Guarani pottery correlated with the relative decline of the local Manchachi Slate on Red style (Figures 7.6 and 7.7). In the Western Plaza midden, a chi-square test was used to compare the frequency distribution of the distinct ceramic styles from the Early and Late Inka periods. The results revealed that these shifts were, in fact, significant (x2(6)>22.46, p<0.01) (Table 7.1).

After the deposition of this second midden, the area was no longer in use. In the humus layer, we found Colonial remains, such as broken glass

Condorillo Crushed Sherds pottery style from the eastern tropics and savannas (Khosko Toro region)

Figure 7.7. Condorillo Crushed Sherds pottery style from the eastern tropics and savannas (Khosko Toro region).

and a piece of an oxidized, handmade iron nail. Therefore, at some point after the collapse and abandonment of Cuzcotuyo, this plaza was still visited in the Colonial era.

 
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