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Excavations Outside the Complex

To the northwest of the main building we excavated one pit (4 m2) to test for potential occupation outside the complex. The area received the denomination of “Exterior West” (Figure 7.1). Contrary to my initial expectations, this unit did not provide much information. A handful of sherds were found in the humus, and no earlier remains were uncovered below in the natural sediments. However, this test pit was useful in confirming that the yellow clay matrix from the main building was, in fact, absent in the external area.

The Military Barrack

Measuring roughly 25 x 5 m, this rectangular barrack hall was located around 100 m to the south of the main building. The unmodified stone walls were less elaborate than those in the main complex (Figure 7.10). In the center, we exposed the remains of a heavily decayed stone platform along with wall segments. Furthermore, considering that a curved wall section extended from one of the corners, it is likely that there were former constructions in the area (see also Parssinen and Siiriainen 1998) (Figure 7.1). We decided to set up two excavation units (8 m2) in the northern area of the barrack. Because of their identical stratigraphy, both units are described together (Figure 7.11).

We documented a single occupational level in the form of a thick midden. In fact, this refuse revealed one of the highest artifact density areas in the entire site (Table 7.3). However, most of the ceramics were utilitarian, with a lesser proportion belonging to the local Manchachi Slate on Red style (Tables 7.3 and 7.4). No other decorated sherds were found. This pattern is strikingly different from those with garbage areas in the complex plazas, considering that they yielded a greater variety of ceramic styles, including Guarani wares. In the military barrack, the utilitarian pottery included sand, mica, quartz, and slate in the paste, a technology common in western valley and altiplanic ceramics. No Guarani or lowland-related pottery was found, suggesting that these goods were not used or accessible by the warriors sheltered in the barrack. Considering the presence of nonlocal technology (that is, mica and quartz in the paste), it is also

Military kallanka in the Cuzcotuyo complex. Location of excavation units

Figure 7.10. Military kallanka in the Cuzcotuyo complex. Location of excavation units.

possible that they were not from the region. A microscopic examination of some sherds revealed that burned organic remains had dripped off on the broken sherds, implying that a generalized fire occurred within the structure.

The midden from this barrack also revealed remains associated with defense. We recovered at least five complete or broken ovoid bola stones, along with an “8-shaped” boleadora made of gray sandstone. In the Andes,

Stratigraphy of the military barrack outside the Cuzcotuyo plaza building complex (eastern profile)

Figure 7.11. Stratigraphy of the military barrack outside the Cuzcotuyo plaza building complex (eastern profile).

Utilitarian

Manchachi

Parapeti

Condorillo

Corrugated

Finger

Brushed

Incised (.Estocado)

Stamped

Total

Crushed

Area

Slate on Red

Ungulate

Sherds

Impressions

Eastern Plaza

241 (90.6%)

16.5 (6.2%)

4.5 (1.7%)

1 (0.4%)

0.5 (0.2%)

2 (0.7%)

0.5 (0.2%)

266 (100%)

(U-l, U-4)

Western Plaza

100 (44.4%)

8.5 (4.2%)

19.5 (8.7%)

55 (24.4%)

16.5 (7.3%)

0.5 (0.2%)

24(10.7%)

225 (100%)

(U-2, U-3)

Room-4 (U-9)

4(100%)

4(100%)

Room-5 (U-6)

9 (56.2%)

7 (43.7%)

16 (100%)

Room-9 (U-5)

4(100%)

4(100%)

Ext. West (U-7)

4(100%)

4(100%)

Kallanka (U-8,

187 (77.4%)

54 (22.4%)

0.5(0.2%)

241.5(100%)

U-10)

Residence (U-

23 (95.8%)

0.5 (2.1%)

0.5 (2.1%)

24(100%)

11, U-14)

Storage qolqa

26(100%)

26(100%)

(U-12)

Private rituals st.

3 (50%)

3 (50%)

6(100%)

(U-13)

Observatory

28 (100%)

28 (100%)

post (U-16)

Total

73.7%

10.7%

2.4%

7.4%

2.2%

0.1%

3.2%

0.1%

0.1%

100%

Note: x2(80)> 124.8, p<0.01. The table shows the 2 x 2 m excavation units in each area.

Table 7.4. Mean distribution of temper types by architectural area in the Cuzcotuyo complex

Area

Sand

Mica

Slate

Selected

Crushed

Sherds

Total

Eastern Plaza (U-l, U-4)

146 (55%)

6 (2.3%)

50.5 (19%)

63.5 (23.9%)

266 (100%)

Western Plaza (U-2, U-3)

40.5 (18%)

3.5 (1.6%)

26.5 (11.8%)

19 (8.5%)

135.5 (60.2%)

225 (100%)

Room-4 (U-9)

4(100%)

4(100%)

Room-5 (U-6)

4 (25%)

9 (56.2%)

3 (18.7%)

16 (100%)

Room-9 (U-5)

3 (75%)

1 (25%)

4(100%)

Ext. West (U-7)

1 (25%)

3 (75%)

4(100%)

Kallanka (U-8, U-10)

72.5 (30%)

160.5 (66.5%) 2.5 (1%)

2 (0.8%)

4(1.7%)

241.5 (100%)

Residence (U-ll, U-14)

2 (8.3%)

2 (8.3%)

0.5 (2%)

0.5 (2%)

19 (79%)

24(100%)

Storage qolqa (U-12)

7 (27%)

19 (73%)

26(100%)

Private rituals st. (U-13)

2 (33.3%)

3 (50%)

1 (16.7%)

6 (100%)

Observatory post (U-16)

24 (85.7%)

4(14.3%)

28 (100%)

Total

35.1%

21.7%

10.6%

2.7%

29.9%

100%

Note: x2(40)>73.4, p<0.01. The table shows the 2 x 2 m excavation units in each area.

Lithic tools from the Oroncota region (left) and bola and boleadora weapons from Khosko Toro (right)

Figure 7.12. Lithic tools from the Oroncota region (left) and bola and boleadora weapons from Khosko Toro (right).

these weapons were often used as efficient slings during combat (Figure 7.12) (Bram 1941; Me-Bar et al. 2008; Murra 1986; Rawls 1979). Mixed in the trash were also pieces of wood fragments dyed bright green (perhaps part of discarded bows or arrowheads), carbonized motacu seeds (Scheeka princepts), and a stone polisher. There was also a handful of llama bone fragments. Most were parts belonging to the cranium, although there were also molars and mandibles. This indicates that the trash was not the product of typical consumption activities. The head is the least likely part of the body to be selected for consumption because of the paucity of meat. Therefore, I am more inclined to consider that its inhabitants were making tools from the mandibles. Overall, compared to other areas, the variability of remains in the barrack midden (dyed wood, motacu, lithic tools, selected camelid bones) demonstrates that a diversity of activities took place inside the construction.

 
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