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Preparation of neat PLA film

10 g PLA pellets were fully dissolved in 64 mL of chloroform by heating in a water bath at 60°C for 2 h with constant stirring, as described in our previous publications (Arjmandi et al., 2015b, 2015c, 2016). The PLA solution was immediately casted onto clean glass plates and was left at room temperature for 48 h to allow the solvent to evaporate. The thickness of the resulting cast film was approximately 100 p,m.

Preparation of PLA/MMT nanocomposites film

The optimum formulation of PLA/MMT nanocomposites based on previous studies (Arjmandi et al., 2014, 2015b, 2015c, 2016) was prepared by mixing 10 g of PLA pellets with 5 phr of MMT content in order to use as a control sample. The PLA/ MMT mixture was placed in 64 mL of chloroform and stirred with vigorous

Table 7.1 Polylactic acid hybrid nanocomposites formulation

Designation

PLA (%)

MMT (phr)

CNW-CS (phr)

CNW-AH (phr)

PLA

100

0

0

0

P/MT5

100

5

0

0

P/MT5/CW-CS1

100

5

1

0

P/MT5/CW-CS3

100

5

3

0

P/MT5/CW-CS5

100

5

5

0

P/MT5/CW-CS7

100

5

7

0

P/MT5/CW-CS9

100

5

9

0

P/MT5/CW-AH1

100

5

0

1

P/MT5/CW-AH3

100

5

0

3

P/MT5/CW-AH5

100

5

0

5

P/MT5/CW-AH7

100

5

0

7

P/MT5/CW-AH9

100

5

0

9

Source: Arjmandi, R., Hassan, A., Eichhorn, S.J., Haafiz, M.M., Zakaria, Z., Tanjung, F.A., 2015b. Enhanced ductility and tensile properties of hybrid montmorillonite/cellulose nanowhiskers reinforced polylactic acid nanocomposites. J. Mater. Sci. 50 (8), 3118—3130 and Arjmandi, R., Hassan, A., Haafiz, M.K.M., Zakaria, Z., Islam, M.S., 2016. Effect of hydrolysed cellulose nanowhiskers on properties of montmorillonite/polylactic acid nanocomposites. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 82, 998—1010.

agitation for 2 h at 60°C until the PLA pellets were fully dissolved. The suspension was then sonicated using a Bransonic 2510 ultrasonic (2510R-DTH-USA) for 5 min and immediately cast onto a clean glass plate to obtain PLA/MMT nanocomposite film that was ~ 100 qm thick. The nanocomposite was designated as P/MT5 (Table 7.1).

 
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