Testing and characterization

Tensile testing

Tensile testing was performed on an Instron 4400 Universal Tester (USA) to measure the tensile strength at the break point and Young’s modulus for each formulation. Rectangular specimens were cut from the obtained cast film with dimension of 60 X 13 X 0.1 mm. The tensile tests were carried out at room temperature according to the ASTM D882-12. A fixed crosshead rate of 12.5 mm min-1 with 30 mm gage length was utilized in all cases, and the results were taken as an average of 10 samples.

Thermogravimetric analysis

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) test was carried out using a Perkin Elmer TGA 7 (Perkin Elmer Instruments, USA) at a heating rate of 10°C min-1 at temperature ranging from 30 to 600°C in a nitrogen environment. Approximately 10 mg of samples were used with a gas flow rate of 50 mL min-1.

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was performed using a Perkin Elmer 1600 Infrared spectrometer (USA). All specimens were made into powder and mixed with KBr at a ratio of 1 wt%. Neat KBr was used as IR spectral reference. FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded using Nicolet’s AVATAR 360 at 32 scans with a resolution of 4 cm-1 and within the wave range of 4000 to 370 cm-1.

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