Politics and Policies in Upper Guinea Coast Societies: Change and Continuity

Background: Social and Political Change Along the Upper Guinea CoastImagined Social Relations and Tropes ThereofEtic and Emic Levels of ReflexivityFour Explanatory FrameworksAim of the BookStructure of the BookConcluding RemarksNotesReferencesI (Re-)Configurations of Identifications and AlliancesPoro Society, Migration, and Political Incorporation on the Freetown Peninsula, Sierra LeoneIntroduction and ArgumentEthnographic and Historical BackgroundPoro as an Integrative Force: Autochthones and StrangersChanging Iconography of the “Sacred Bush”Postwar Incorporation of MigrantsCultural CommodificationConclusionNotesReferencesChallenging the Classical Parameters of “Doing Host-Refugee Politics”: The Case of Casamance Refugees in The GambiaChallenging the Classical Parameters: SelfSettlement and Preexisting Host-Refugee RelationshipsShared Cultural and Ethnic HeritageCommon Livelihood StrategiesToward Long-Term Integration: Is the Path Always Smooth?Perceptions of “Host” and “Refugee”Exceptionalism of the Casamance Refugee SituationConclusionsNotesReferencesBetterment Versus Complicity: Struggling with Patron-Client Logics in Sierra LeonePostwar Political Violence: “But We Will Do It Again ...”Street Children and NGO Brokerage: “I Want to Change, But How Can I?”Gender and Human Rights: “Why Give Us Human Rights When We Don’t Have Jobs?”ConclusionNotesReferencesKinship Tropes as Critique of Patronage in Postwar Sierra LeonePolitical Economy of Patronage ResourcesBrief Ethnographic Background: Patronage AND PATRIMONIALISMTheoretical Puzzle: Kinship Versus PatronageSemiotic Theory of Kinship TropesFour Cases: Criticizing PatronsCase A: FathersCase B: Brothers and SistersCase C: Husbands and WivesCase D: FoodConclusion and Theoretical Implications: Client to CitizenNotesReferencesII Challenging Conventions of Explaining and Situating Violent ConflictGrand Narratives of Crisis: Customary Conflicts as a Factor in the Liberian Civil War and Implications for PolicyThe Study of Civil WarOrigins and Course of the WarResourcing the InsurgencyAnalysisConflicts in Customary SocietyRural Land and Labor SupplyConclusionsNotesReferencesHistoricizing as a Legal Trope of Jeopardy in Asylum Narratives and Expert Testimonies of Gender-Based ViolenceAsylum Petitions as Vantage Point on Lived ExperiencesExpert Testimony and “Historicizing” JeopardyForced Marriage (Forced Conjugal Association)Female Genital CuttingExpertise and the Contradictions of Protection in Post-Conflict SocietiesAbsence and IncapacityPresence and InefficacyHistoricization and the Testimony of Future JeopardyConditional, Contingent, and HypotheticalOverlapping Claims, Blurring CategoriesConclusionNotesReferencesRevisiting Tropes of Environmental and Social Change in Casamance, SenegalTwo Versions of History, Two TropesDrought, Outmigration and Agrarian Change in West AfricaEnvironmental Variability, De-agrarianization and Social Change in West AfricaTrope as Fallacy: The Curious Persistence of AgroEcological Collapse Explanations in CasamanceWhy This All Matters: “Environmental Refugees” and Misplaced InterventionsConclusionReferencesCasamance Secession: National Narratives of Marginalization and IntegrationConceptual Background: Tropes in National NarrativesPolitics of Meaning: Tropes of Casamance MarginalityPolitical Economy: Colonial and Postcolonial Tropes of Nationality(De)Construction of a Nation: Margins as a Trope of ViolenceConclusion: Rhetoric and RealityNotesReferencesIII (Re-)Contextualizing Postcolonial Statehood and National BelongingTranscending Traditional Tropes: Autochthony as a Discourse of Conflict and Integration in Postwar Krio/Non-Krio Relations in Sierra LeoneColonial Roots of Autochthony Discourses Between Krios and Other Ethnic GroupsPostwar Newcomers: Civil War and Demographic Changes in FreetownPostwar Politics of Autochthony: “Unexpected Corollaries” of DemocratizationTwo Cases: Autochthony Standoffs in Rural CommunitiesAutochthones and Latecomers in the Kissy Urban Area: Reframing History, Property and RitualConclusion: National Integration and Policy Implications for PeaceReferencesEthnicity as Trope of Political Belonging and Conflict: Cape Verdean Identity and Agency in Guinea-BissauEthnographic and Historical Background: Cape Verdeans in Guinea-Bissau SocietyEthnic Markers of Civilized Behavior: Commonality and ReligionThe Independence Movement and Ethnic DifferencesPostcolonial Violence and the Construction of EthnicityThe Readjustment Movement's “Rice Coup” of November 14,1980The Decline of the Cape Verdean Issue Since the 1990sConclusionNotesReferencesDynamics in the Host-Stranger Paradigm: The Broker Role of a Latecomer Association in Western Cote d’IvoireThe tutorat in the Context of the Ivoirian Plantation EconomyCustomary Land TransfersState-driven Plantation Economy, Land Rights and Practices“Vernacular or Informal Formalization” of Land TransfersSocial Conflicts in the Host-Stranger RelationshipAn Association of Latercomers: LAmicale des Burkinabe de l'exterieur pour le developpement (ABED)The Tutorat Relationship on PaperBrokerage Between Burkinabes and the StateBrokerage, Crisis and the Renegotiation of Social NormsConclusionsNotesReferencesIV (Re-)Conceptualizing Development and InterventionRoads as Imaginary for Employing Idle Youth in the Post-Conflict Liberian StateYouth Employment as Trope of State RecoveryLiberia’s Employment Emergency and Action ProgramThe United Nations and Government Imaginary of Post-Conflict DevelopmentCase Study: Rehabilitating Roads for a “New” LiberiaDifferent Perceptions of Emergency Employment and StabilityEpilogue: Lofa 201226Conclusion: Roads and Youth in Post-Conflict Political ImaginaryNotesReferencesTropes, Networks, and Higher Education in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone: Policy Formation at the University of MakeniA Changing Makeni in a Changing Sierra Leone: The Context of UNIMAK’s Creation and ConsolidationTropes of Unity and Pride at UNIMAKCultural Networking and Policy Formation at UNIMAKNetworks of Meaning and the Deployment of TropesConclusionNotesReferencesBulletproofing: Small Arms, International Law, and Spiritual Security in the GambiaTranscending Bulletproofing and the Limits of Security NarrativesGuns, Place, and State AuthoritySpiritual Security and GunsBulletproofing, Proceduralism, and the Discourse of the StateConclusionNotesReferences
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