Contemporary Chinese diasporas

Intra-Asian Chinese Migrations: A Historical OverviewThe Chinese Trade Diaspora and Huashang-Dominated Intra-Asian MigrationPre-Nineteenth-Century Maritime CommerceThe Role of the Imperial Chinese StateThe Fall of the Chinese Empire: Semicolonialism and Huagong MigrationHuagong (Chinese Labor) to Southeast AsiaPrecolonial vs. Colonial Chinese MigrationDevelopments After World War IIDecolonization, Nation-State-Building and Restrictive ImmigrationEconomic Development and Contemporary Migration TrendsUndocumented or Clandestine Chinese ImmigrationDiscussion and ConclusionNotesI New Chinese Diasporas in Africa The Politics of Chineseness in South Africa: From Apartheid to 2015Multiple Chinese CommunitiesEarly Chinese Immigration from GuangzhouImmigration from TaiwanNew Chinese Migration from Mainland ChinaWhite Enough, Not Black EnoughChinese as “Honorary Whites”“Chinese Now Black!”Taiwanese South AfricansCheap South African PassportsPolitical ParticipationNew Chinese Migrants: Love Affair with the ANCRising China and Its Influence on South AfricaNew Chinese Migrants and the ANCConclusion: Becoming South African or Using Chineseness to Get Ahead?NotesReferencesChinese Traders in Ghana: The Liminality Trap, and Challenges for Ethnic Formation and IntegrationIntroduction: The Chinese Paradox in AfricaChinese Migration to GhanaThe Early Years: Manufacturers from Hong Kong, and Trading Representatives from Taiwan and Mainland ChinaThe Age of Trade Liberalization: Trading Entrepreneurs from Mainland ChinaRegulatory Framework and Business Environment in TradeThe Chinese Trade Cluster of Accra: Matured but Not InstitutionalizedMigration, Ritual Passage and Liminality: Some Theoretical ConsiderationsChinese Traders in Accra: Entrepreneurial Sojourning as Ritual JourneySeparation: Entrepreneurs Embarking on a Ritual JourneyThe Nature of Liminality: Trials and HardshipsTransforming Personalities: Alienation through AdaptionLiminality Without CommunitasIn the Liminality Trap: Neither Reintegration in China Nor Integration in GhanaThe Point of No Return: Chinese Ways UnlearnedRejecting the Second Option: Integration in AfricaDenial of Access: Ghana Is No Immigration Country for ChineseNo Way Out of Liminality without Proper AchievementConclusionInterviewsNotesReferencesIntegration of Newcomers into Local Communities: An Analysis of New Chinese Immigrants in ZimbabweA Historical Overview of Chinese Immigration to ZimbabweEarlier Chinese Immigrants and Their OffspringGeneral Trends among New Chinese ImmigrantsThe New Chinese Community and Its Development in HararePlace of ResidenceCenters of Economic ActivityChinese AssociationsChinese-Language MediaConstraints on Social IntegrationThe Language BarrierSelf-IsolationPatterns of Intimate RelationshipsIntergroup Perceptions between New Chinese Immigrants and ZimbabweansNew Chinese Immigrants’ Perceptions of ZimbabweansZimbabweans’ Perceptions of New Chinese ImmigrantsSeeking to IntegrateAdapting to Local Behavioral PatternsFulfilling Social ResponsibilitiesEngaging Locals by Organizing Large-Scale Cultural or Sports ActivitiesConclusionNotesII New Chinese Diasporas in AsiaDebating Integration in Singapore, Deepening the Variegations of the Chinese DiasporaImmigration and Integration in SingaporeImmigration Trends and Tensions in SingaporeIntegration Initiatives and Expectations in SingaporeIntegration from the Perspective of New Chinese ImmigrantsCharacteristics of New Immigration from China to SingaporeAttitudes of New Chinese Immigrants toward IntegrationCoethnic Tensions and Social Prejudice Experienced by New Chinese ImmigrantsCohort Distinctions among New Chinese ImmigrantsConclusionReferencesChinese Migrant Communities in South Korea: Old Huaqiao, Chaoxianzu and Xin YiminChinese Migrations to South KoreaThe Influx of ChaoxianzuThe Migrations of Xin YiminLife and Work in KoreaChanging Cultural and Social LandscapeConclusionNotesThe Formation and Development of the Contemporary Chinese Diaspora in JapanRecent Trends in Migration from the People’s Republic of China to JapanHistorical Overview of Immigration to JapanContemporary Chinese Immigration to JapanSpatial Distribution of New Chinese MigrantsThe Formation and Development of the Contemporary Chinese Diaspora in JapanDemographic ChangePatterns of Economic Integration among New Chinese MigrantsThe Changing Structure of the Ethnic CommunityThe Impact of Chinese Immigrants on Local SocietyBecoming Japanese?Identity FormationTransformation at the Local LevelConclusionNoteReferencesChinese Immigration to the Philippines since the Late 1970sDriving Forces behind International Migration: Theoretical BackgroundsChinese Migration to the PhilippinesA Historical OverviewNew Arrivals: Numbers and TypesWhy Migrate: Social Capital and Push-Pull ForcesSocial Capital: History, Culture and NetworkPush Forces from ChinaPull: Opportunity and Comparative AdvantageChinatown: Land of DreamsCommunity TransformationConclusionNotesReferencesEthnicized Networks and Local Embeddedness: The New Chinese Migrant Community in CambodiaA Historical Overview of the Chinese Community in CambodiaEarlier DevelopmentIntragroup DiversityThe Socioeconomic Niche of the Sino-Khmer CommunityThe New Chinese Migrant Community TodayNew Migrants from TaiwanNew Migrants from Neighboring ASEAN CountriesNew Migrants from Mainland ChinaNew Migrants from Hong Kong and MacauNetwork-Building and Local Embeddedness: The Case of GangshangNetworking within the Gangshang CommunityNetworking with Other Chinese CommunitiesNetworking with the Chinese GovernmentNetworking with the HomelandNetworking with Ethnic Chinese Communities from ASEAN CountriesCross-Ethnic Networking with the Cambodian RegimeEntrepreneurship or Crony Capitalism?ConclusionNotesReferencesNew Chinese Diasporas in OceaniaRediscovering the New Gold Mountain: Chinese Immigration to Australia Since the Mid-1980sPerspectives on Chinese Immigration to AustraliaOpening Two Tightly Closed DoorsThe Joint Effects of International Education PoliciesThe Chinese Student Issue of 1989China’s Post-Deng Reform and Australia’s ResponsesSettling Down in the New Gold MountainThe New Demography of the Chinese CommunityChina-Related Businesses and the Community’s ProsperityConclusionReferencesNew Chinese Immigration to New Zealand: Policies, Immigration Patterns, Mobility and PerceptionSetting the Scene: Early Chinese Immigration to New ZealandNew Chinese Immigrants in New Zealand The Homeland FactorThe “Open-Door” Immigration Policy in New ZealandSeeking “Greener Pastures”? Reasons for ImmigratingDiversified Immigration PathsPyramid, Educational Background and Employment StatusHere and There: Transnational Migratory MobilityConclusion: New Chinese Immigrants in a Bicultural New ZealandNotesReferencesNew Chinese Diasporas in EuropeIdentity Formation and Social Integration: Creating and Imagining the Chinese Community in Prague, the Czech RepublicFormation of the Chinese Community in Czechia since 1989Settlement Strategies of Czech ChineseChinese Community FormationIntegration and Intergenerational Differences among Czech ChineseConnection with HomelandSocial IntegrationConclusionNotesReferencesNew Chinese Immigrants in Spain: The Migration Process, Demographic Characteristics and Adaptation StrategiesThe Migration Process The Earlier WavesNew Chinese MigrationReopening the Chinese Emigration Door and Its Consequences in ZhejiangChanges in Immigration Policy in SpainSize and CompositionEconomic ActivitiesThe Catering BusinessMade in ChinaNewly Emerged Economic SectorsSocial Challenges and Adaptation StrategiesConclusionNotesReferencesChinese Student Migration and Community-Building: An Exploration of New Diasporic Formation in EnglandChinese Student Diaspora: Why Does It Matter?Perspectives on Student MigrantsConceptual Framework and Research DesignThe Impact of Chinese Student Migration on Local Chinese CommunitiesChinese Students and Coethnic Residents across EnglandTransformation of the Chinese Community in NottinghamScope and Function of Social Networking among Chinese StudentsDiscussionConclusion and ImplicationsNotesReferencesNew Chinese Diasporas in the AmericasNew Chinese Migrants in Latin America: Trends and Patterns of AdaptationBackground and TrendsFamily MigrationMigration along Abnormal PathsNew and Old Chinese MigrantsGlimpses of New Chinese Migrants’ LivesConcluding RemarksReferencesThe Chinese Presence in Cuba: Heroic Past, Uncertain Present, Open FutureAn Uncertain PresentAn Open FuturePOSTCRIPTNotesReferencesThe Making of New Chinese Immigrants in CanadaEarly Chinese Immigration and RacializationEmergence of Canada’s New Chinese ImmigrantsThree Waves of New ArrivalsForces in the Making of New Chinese ImmigrantsChina’s University Graduates and Chinese Students as Potential ImmigrantsPRC Immigrants in Canada’s Labor MarketProfiles of New Chinese ImmigrantsIncome Level of New Chinese ImmigrantsSelf-Employment among New Chinese ImmigrantsIncome Disparity between PRC Immigrants and White ImmigrantsConclusionNotesReferencesImmigrant Entrepreneurship and Diasporic Development: The Case of New Chinese Migrants in the USACauses and Consequences of Entrepreneurship: An Alternative Framework for AnalysisPast and Present Trends in Chinese Immigration The Old-TimersThe New ArrivalsImmigrant Entrepreneurship and Diasporic DevelopmentEntrepreneurship and Ethnic OrganizationMigrant Integration through EthnicizationConclusionNotesReferences
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