• 1. See Li (2005, 2008) for a more thorough analysis of these factors.
  • 2. UNESCO defines Gross Enrolment Ratios or (GER) as “the total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given year” (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations 2009: 193). For China, the number of students enrolled in post-secondary education in 2009 made up 23 % of the post-secondary school-age population in 2009, compared to 8 % in 2000.
  • 3. In 2011 the Government of Canada replaced the compulsory Census long- form questionnaire with the non-compulsory National Household Survey. The data released under the 2011 National Household Survey are essentially the same as those released under recent past censuses, but the response rate tended to be lower in the 2011 National Household Survey. Statistics Canada releases a sample weight for each individual in the microdata file to compensate for non-responses in the 2011 National Household Survey.
  • 4. When other variables are included in subsequent analysis, the number of PRC-born immigrants who immigrated to Canada between 1990 and 2009, ages 20 to 64 in 2010 and participated in Canada’s labor market, non-primary sector, with employment or self-employment, may become slightly less than 211,525, owing to a small number of missing values in some variables.
  • 5. Only 1003 PRC-born immigrants were in occupations unique to the primary sector in 2010. They were not included in the analysis.
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