EU consumer law and human rights

Consumer Law and the MarketIntroductionHistorical Evolution of Consumer Law and PolicyThe lack of a consumer law categoryPolitical recognition of the consumer at the international levelDifferent national models of consumer protectionThe notion of the average consumer in EUlawThe European Union’s Competence in Consumer LawThe Treaty of RomeThe Single European ActThe Treaty of MaastrichtThe Treaty of Amsterdam and the Tobacco Advertising caseConsumer Policy and the Lisbon TreatyThe full-harmonization trendThe implications for national systemsThe citizen consumer and the Charter of Fundamental RightsThe Lisbon TreatyConclusionsThe Evolution of Consumer Protection and Human RightsIntroductionThe International Law ContextConsumer protection as a new generation of human rights?Implicit consumer protection in human rights agreementsThe United Nations Guidelines for Consumer ProtectionDebates on human rightsThe impact of international law on consumer protectionConsumer Protection in the EU Charter of Fundamental RightsThe creation and the aim of the Charter of Fundamental RightsThe functions of the Charter and its social dimensionThe relevant provisions in the Charter for consumer protectionThe scope and limited application of the CharterThe difference between rights and principlesThe implications of the Charter and the Lisbon TreatyThe Influence of Constitutional Rights and PrinciplesConstitutional consumer law models in selected countriesThe impact of constitutional rights and principles on contractsThe protection of health and safetyConsumer codesConclusionsA Broader Perspective on Consumer Protection and Human RightsIntroductionThe Transformed Role of the ConsumerChanges in markets and regulationChanges in consumers, vulnerable groups, and ethical trendsAdapting consumer law to economic and social changesFreedom, Capabilities, Human Rights, and ProceduresEconomic efficiency, freedom, and justiceSubstantive freedoms, capability, and ethical demandsHuman rightsProcedural rights and participationReassessing EU Consumer Law and Fundamental RightsEconomic and social dimensions of consumer lawSocial responsibility and sustainable behaviourProcedural rights—a catalogue for consumer law?Feasibility and policy implicationsConclusionsConsumer Protection and Financial ContractsIntroductionFinancial Consumer Protection and Credit RegulationThe rise of consumer credit and EU regulationThe 2008 Credit Agreements Directive and its focus on informationResponsible lendingSocial justice debatesFundamental Rights, Social Principles, and Non-DiscriminationThe role of the CharterConstitutional principles in financial guarantor casesProtection of guarantors by the ECJThe fundamental right of non-discriminationFinancial Capability and Over-IndebtednessCorporate responsibility and social bankingFinancial literacy and educationThe fresh start in consumer bankruptcyConclusionsElectronic Communication, Fundamental Rights Conflicts, and Consumer ParticipationIntroductionLiberalization and Universal ServicesEvolution of the current legal frameworkThe concept and justification of universal servicesServices of general economic interest in primary lawUniversal services in secondary lawInformation, Unfair Terms, and Fundamental Rights ConflictsConsumer empowerment through informationProtection from unfair terms and dispute resolutionData protection as a human rightBalancing fundamental rightsThe Scarlet Extended caseConsumer ParticipationParticipation and representation of consumer interestsThe Communications Consumer Panel and EU consultationsParticipation and the citizens’ initiative after LisbonConclusionsConsumers’ Access to Justice and Procedural RightsIntroductionAccess to Justice as a Human RightAccess to justice barriersExisting redress mechanisms in the EUCollective redress mechanisms in Member StatesA typology of collective redress casesProcedural Consumer RightsRecent developments in EU law and policyThe principle of effectiveness and EU competencesDeveloping EU collective redress procedures for consumersAlternative dispute resolution and fundamental rightsThe new legislation on ADR and ODRLitigation FundingThe fundamental right to legal aidContingency feesConditional fee agreements and human rights limitationsThird-party funding and legal expenses insuranceConsumer actions and class proceedings fundsConclusionsBIBLIOGRAPHY
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