The ABCs of Evaluation

PREFACEDemonstrating SuccessOverviewUsing This BookTHE AUTHORSWhat Is Evaluation?Common DenominatorsTwo Definitions of EvaluationEvaluating Efficiency, Effectiveness, and ImpactEvaluating AlternativesIdentifying Areas to ImproveOther LevelsFormal Reasons to EvaluatePractical ApplicationFormative and Summative EvaluationsPutting It All TogetherWhy Evaluate?Grants and GrantsmanshipBenefitsBenefits to Sponsors and StaffOpportunitiesUnderstanding of OutcomesLimitationsConsiderationsSocial and Political SituationsDecision-Making NeedsResearch for New SolutionsPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsDecision Making: Whom to Involve, How, and Why?Program and Project CyclesOverlooked StakeholdersProgram PhasesEvaluation and MonitoringSample Data Sources for Monitoring a Job-Training Program Sample Data Types for Monitoring a Job-Training Program Program Planning Cycle and EvaluationNeeds AnalysisProgram PlanningProgram Implementation and Formative EvaluationFinal Evaluation: SummativeTypes of Evaluation for Decision MakingPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsStarting Point: The Evaluator's Program DescriptionWhat an Evaluator's Program Description Can DoDeveloping an Evaluator's Program DescriptionQuestions Based on the EPDQuestions Not Specifically Based on the EPDPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsChoosing an Evaluation ModelMore Than One Way to EvaluateFour Evaluation ModelsDiscrepancy ModelGoal-Free ModelTransaction ModelDecision-Making ModelOther ModelsGoal-Based MethodChoosing the Right ModelEvaluation Design FormatOther ConsiderationsPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsData SourcesStarting PointQualitative and Quantitative Data SourcesFour Levels of DataNominal DataOrdinal DataInterval DataRatio DataNature of Data CollectionExisting DataNewly Collected DataInterviewScalesSentence CompletionTestsObservational AnalysisPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsData AnalysisData AnalysisDataTermsStatisticsMeasures of Central TendencyMeasures of VariabilityLevels of DataQuality of Work: The Extent to Which the Employee Actually Completes a Job Assignment CorrectlyPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsIs It Evaluation or Is It Research?Determining Evaluation or Research from IntentDetermining Evaluation or Research from DesignQualitative and Quantitative CharacteristicsSamplingProbability Sampling MethodsNonprobability Sampling MethodsSampling and SurveysPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsWriting the Evaluation ReportCommunicating Your FindingsEvaluation ReportsThe Report OutlineSection One: SummarySection Two: Statement of the Evaluation's PurposeSection Three: Background InformationSection Four: Description of the Evaluation StudySection Five: ResultsSection Six: Discussion of the Program and Its ResultsSection Seven: Conclusions and RecommendationsPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsEvaluation as a BusinessIs There a Market for Program Evaluation?Public SectorPrivate SectorHow Do You Find the Business?Proactive ResourcesPublic SectorPrivate SectorReactive ResourcesEmergency ResourcesHow Do You Negotiate a Contract?Negotiating ResponsibilitiesPricing Your ServicesPreparing a ContractKeeping the Business AliveMaintaining Relationships with Funding OrganizationsLong-Term ContractsPutting It All TogetherKey Words and ConceptsMore On Data AnalysisSample Evaluation ReportSample Evaluation Contract
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