Thanks to Kyle Stanford and Zanja Yudell for their incisive comments on an earlier version of this paper. I doubt that I have addressed all their concerns in ways that they will find satisfying, but I hope they at least think the paper better for their efforts. Thanks also to Paul Teller for conversation and correspondence which resulted in a clearer formulation of my target in the early stages of my thinking, to Roman Frigg, Ron Giere, Peter Godfrey-Smith, and Arnon Levy for multiple conversations on these issues, and to Anjan Chakravartty for helpful correspondence.


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