Pitching rate along with wort oxygenation are the two pillars of successful and consistent fermentations. Irrespective of process scale, consistently pitching the required number of viable yeast cells is the focus of best practice. How that is delivered is driven by scale and budget. Although the ‘radiofrequency permittivity' platform has a range of willing applications that will add value, for some a microscope, haemocytometer and vital stain is sufficient to deliver a consistent yeast pitching rate in fermenter. Other considerations are yeast viability, which directly relates to the management of the other parts of the yeast supply cycle. Generation number - as noted above - should also be proactively managed to 10 or less generations. From a process perspective, pitching of yeast into fermenter must accommodate the reality of lengthy fill times and multiple batches of wort. In terms of consistency, best practice is to pitch - if possible - all the required yeast into the first brewlength. This removes the small risk of wort contaminants taking hold and ensures that the entire yeast population behaves ‘as one' in the transition from quiescence to growth.