Viewpoint and the Fabric of Meaning

Overview of the chaptersI: The ubiquity of mixed viewpointsII: Across languagesIII: Across modalitiesIn conclusionReferencesI: The ubiquity of viewpointDiscourse viewpoint as networkIntroductionViewpoint and constructional formsPronouns, viewpoint networks and viewpoint compressionPronouns and verbs of seeingDeictics as viewpoint markersUnattributable discourse in an internet memeDiscourse vs. embodiment: 2 into 1ConclusionsReferencesMixed viewpoints and the quotative- reportive cline in German: Reported speech and reportive evidentialityIntroductionTheoretical frameworkReportivesQuotativesReported speechCase StudiesCaveat: Syntax and viewpointDirect speechIndirect speechSollen and wollenThe quotative-reportive clineConclusionList of abbreviationsReferencesViewpoint fusion for realism enhancement in Ainu and Japanese narrativesIntroductionMultiple mental spaces and viewpointsMultiple reported discourses and their participantsMultiple reported discourses in recited narrativesNarrative conceptualization in Japanese folktalesSelf-allusion by the use and non-use of dialectal and archaic evidentialsA merger between the Speaker and the NarratorNarrative conceptualization in Ainu folktalesFirst-person marking in the Speech-act SpaceFirst-person marking in narrative spacesClusivity distinction and its narrative effectThe Addressee-audience merger for realism enhancementConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesThe socio-cognitive foundation of Danish perspective-mixing dialogue particlesIntroductionDanish dialogue particlesA test of the consensus on the meaning of jo, da, and vel: the JDV-testJo, da, and vel and children with autismDiscussionAcknowledgementsReferencesII: Across languagesBlended viewpoints, mediated witnesses: A cognitive linguistic approach to news narrativesIntroductionJournalistic narratives: reconstructing realityNarrative discourse: constructing realitiesA model for the cognitive linguistic analysis of journalistic narrativesMaterialsAnalysesEpisode analysis and embedding of Source Viewpoint-spacesViewpoint blendingNarrative-External Discourse SpaceDiscussion and conclusionReferencesAppendixShifting viewpoints: How does that actually work across languages? An exercise in parallel text analysisIntroductionMethod, data and research questionMixing viewpoints in Alice in Wonderland and its four Chinese translationsAnalysis of the English textAnalysis of the four Chinese translationsMixing viewpoints through deixis in Jiu Guo and its English translationConclusionReferencesResearch materials usedPerspective: Kawabata’s Beauty and Sadness and its translations into English, German, and DutchIntroductionPerspective in literary textsMultiple perspectivesOn-line experiencePerspective in JapaneseSubjective construal in JapaneseA possible explanation for the Japanese construal preferencePerspectives in translationThe analyzed text and its authorYasunari Kawabata (1899-1972)Beauty and SadnessComparison of the Japanese, English, German, and Dutch versionsConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesIII: Across modalitiesThe dynamic interplay between words and pictures in picture storybooks: How visual and verbal information interact and affect the readers’ viewpoint and understandingIntroductionThe Object of investigation: UsagiAn analysis of Usagi: Contrasts and harmonies between pictures and wordsWhat the pictures representThe use of colourChanges in the size of the charactersFacial expression and eye direction of the charactersWhat the text representsRepetitionsDirect speechDeictic expressionsOnomatopoeia and other expressionsTension between words and pictures and how their contrasts are adjustedAn overview of the experiment by Kojima et al. (2013)The results of the experiment and discussionThe participants’ sense of distance from the two rabbitsRelative locations of the two rabbitsConcluding remarksReferencesMaintaining multiple viewpoints with gazeIntroductionData for the present studyPartitioning of the gestural body, and of gestural spaceNarratorial gaze as itselfVisual "checking”Memory spacesConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesMixed viewpoints in factual and fictive discourse in Catalan Sign Language narrativesIntroductionDirect discourse in signed languages: Constructed actionMethodologyDirect discourse in Catalan Sign LanguageConstructed action for reporting events in LSCConstructed discourse in LSCFictive discourse in LSCFictive discourse for mental statesFictive discourse for emotional and attitudinal statesFictive discourse for source of informationDiscussion and conclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesConcluding remarks: Why viewpoint matters
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