Cost the Intervention
A fourth strategy concerns identifying the costs associated with an intervention. Microcosting, or specifying the costs of each aspect of delivering an intervention (e.g., materials, travel, staff time, supervision), can be conducted once the characteristics of an intervention have been identified early on in the development process (Pizzi, Jutkowitz, Frick, Suh, Prioli, & Gitlin, 2014). An understanding of cost can inform whether the intervention will be economically viable. If it is too costly, then modifications may have to be carried out or a strong rationale provided for pursuing the approach. Formal economic evaluations of cost, benefit, and/or effectiveness from a societal or payor perspective can be conducted in a Phase III or Phase IV evaluation of the intervention. Economic evaluations are discussed in more detail in Chapter 18.
Improve Delivery Efficiencies
A fifth and related strategy involves identifying delivery efficiencies to lower costs, and to enhance scalability and impact. This may include using technology to deliver the intervention (see Chapter 7), delivering content in group versus one-on-one sessions, or employing community health workers or staff indigenous to a targeted setting versus more highly skilled or paid interventionists.