In this chapter, we provided an overview to the use of mixed methods approaches in intervention development, evaluation, and implementation. The basic mixed methods designs discussed in this chapter provide a starting point for using mixed methods in developing, evaluating, and implementing behavioral interventions in real-world settings. Readers wishing for more details may refer to several excellent resources on mixed methods (Creswell et al., 2011; Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011; Curry & Nunez-Smith, 2014; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010). Readers wishing to have more in-depth information on writing mixed methods for publication or proposals may find the article of Dahlberg and colleagues helpful (Dahlberg, Wittink, & Gallo, 2010). For rapid immersion in the concepts of mixed methods, Creswell has written a short introduction (Creswell, 2014).
In January 2015, President Obama shared a major policy initiative in precision medicine, with the goal of “delivering the right treatments, at the right time, every time to the right person” (Office of the Press Secretary, 2015). Use of mixed methods approaches can enrich the development, evaluation, and scale-up of behavioral health interventions in a patient-centered manner. Having rich contextual information along with quantitative intervention outcomes data may lead to the reduction of the 17 plus years time lag between evidence generation to clinical practice (Westfall, Mold, & Fagnan, 2007). We urge investigators to incorporate mixed methods in intervention development, testing, and implementation in practice settings to ensure that the interventions developed will reach the diverse persons who are meant to benefit.