Community/Organization-Level Measures

Measures at the community or organizational level are typically gathered when an intervention is focused on implementation of an intervention in settings such as a school, clinic, hospital, housing units, or community. For example, housing conditions are related to childhood asthma and an intervention might be focused on educating residents within a housing unit or neighborhood about housekeeping practices, or building owners on building maintenance (e.g., water leaks, wall cracks) or rodent control. Alternatively, the intervention could be a community walking program or antismoking campaign within a neighborhood. These types of studies typically include measures targeted at the individual such as clinical outcomes (e.g., reductions in asthma prevalence), measures of health behaviors or activity patterns (e.g., decreased incidence of smoking or an increase in walking), or attitudes (e.g., attitudes toward the importance of health behaviors). However, other measures are also important such as those related to cost-effectiveness, resource utilization, changes in environments (e.g., better maintained housing units, safe walking paths in neighborhoods), changes in processes (e.g., reduced wait times in clinics), and measures related to treatment fidelity and sustainability of the intervention.

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