In Part IV, we examine the challenges of moving proven interventions into the real- world and how the implementation experience can help inform the development of the next generation of behavioral interventions. Chapter 19 examines emerging theoretical and conceptual frameworks in implementation science that are helpful to consider even when developing and evaluating an intervention. Chapter 20 delves deeper into the implementation experience to identify lessons learned from moving proven behavioral interventions into different settings for their everyday use. This section concludes with a discussion of dissemination (Chapter 21), a phase along the pipeline involving purposively moving interventions from the randomized trial environment into community and clinical settings.

The key “take home” points of Part IV include the following:

  • ? Knowledge of the “end game” or having a vision for one’s intervention in terms of its future implementation should inform the actual development of an intervention.
  • ? A myriad of theories and conceptual frameworks concerning implementation processes are evolving and can guide intervention development and evaluation.
  • ? A key lesson from the implementation experience includes the importance of understanding “context” in which interventions are to be delivered and the characteristics of the target population upfront when developing the intervention.
  • ? To effectively disseminate interventions for adoption by a setting, organization, community, or an individual, a purposeful plan of action is necessary and this should be established early on in the pipeline.
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