Interrelations between public policies, migration and development in Cambodia.

Overview and policy recommendations in CambodiaWhy was Cambodia included in the IPPMD project?How did the IPPMD project operate in Cambodia?What does the report tell us about the links between migration and development?Labour market policies are doing little to stem emigrationAgricultural subsidies influence emigrationReturns to education are lower than the benefits of emigratingInvestment is not being boosted by migrationA more coherent policy agenda can unlock the development potential of migrationIntegrate migration and development into labour market policiesLeverage migration for agricultural developmentEnhance the links between migration and investment in educationStrengthen the links between migration, investment, financial services and developmentRoadmap of the reportReferencesCambodia’s migration landscapeA brief overview of migration and remittance trends in CambodiaMigration is a growing phenomenonRemittances are growing in volumeWhat are the key issues and knowledge gaps?Higher wages are a key pull factor for migrantsCambodian migrant workers are vulnerable to abuseThe impacts of migration on households are mixedWhat role does migration play in national development strategies?Migration is only now appearing in national development strategiesThere are few policies governing migrationWhat is the institutional framework governing migration?ConclusionsNotesReferencesUnderstanding the methodological framework used in CambodiaHow were the communities and households sampled?Household surveyCommunity surveyStakeholder interviewsHow were the data analysed?What do the surveys tell us about migration in Cambodia?Most emigrants choose Thailand as their country of destinationRemittance patterns differ across rural and urban householdsMost return migrants are satisfied to have returnedReferencesWhat impacts does migration have on development in Cambodia?Migration and the labour marketEmigration and remittances reduce the supply of labourMigration and agricultureAgricultural households do not seem to invest remittances in agricultureMigration and educationHouseholds receiving remittances spend more on educationMigration, investments and financial servicesEmigration, return migration and remittances have limited effects on productive investmentsConclusionsNotesReferencesHow do sectoral policies affect migration in Cambodia?Labour market policies and migrationGovernment employment agencies can reduce the incentives to migrateVocational training programmes have little influence on migrationPublic employment programmes may be associated with higher emigrationAgricultural policies and migrationAgricultural subsidies are linked to emigrationEducation policies and migrationEducation programmes do not appear to be linked to emigration decisionsInvestment and financial services policies and migrationAccess to the formal financial sector translates into higher and more formal remittancesMigrant households are less likely to have participated in financial literacy programmesConclusionsNotesReferences
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