Government employment agencies can reduce the incentives to migrate
The Ministry of labour and vocational Training (MOLvT) disseminates labour market information and attempts to match job seekers with potential employers. One of the main public institutions responsible is the National Employment Agency (NEA). The NEA offers guidance to job seekers, provides them with labour market information, and ensures that the information is widely available through mechanisms such as job fairs. Such mechanisms can have an indirect impact on households' migration decisions. If people can find jobs in the local labour market through government employment agencies, they may choose to stay rather than move abroad to seek work.
Only about 4% of Cambodians (employed in public and private sectors) in the IPPMD sample had found jobs through government employment agencies (6% for men and 2% for women). Most people found their job by approaching potential employers directly or through friends and family (Figure 5.1). Together these two methods account for 80% of all surveyed adults with paid jobs in both the public and private sector. While the share of people who benefited from government employment agencies is low, there are certain patterns related to migration. Of those found their jobs through a government employment agency, only 6% have plans to emigrate, while a much bigger share of those who did not use these agencies plan to emigrate (17%). Individual characteristics of government employment agency beneficiaries explain this pattern. Beneficiaries are more likely than non-beneficiaries to have higher education levels and to hold jobs in the public sector, which are seen as secure occupations.
Figure 5.1. Government agencies play a minor role in job seeking among Cambodian IPPMD respondents
Methods for finding a current job in both public and private sectors
Source: Authors’ own work based on IppMD data.