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Electric Power Systems

HistoryCharacteristics Influencing Generation and TransmissionOperation of GeneratorsEnergy ConversionEnergy Conversion Using SteamEnergy Conversion Using WaterGas TurbinesNuclear PowerRenewable Energy SourcesSolar Energy-Thermal ConversionSolar Energy-Photovoltaic ConversionWind GeneratorsBiofuelsGeothermal EnergyOther Renewable ResourcesTidesWave PowerEnergy StoragePumped StorageCompressed-Air StorageSecondary BatteriesFuel CellsHydrogen Energy SystemsSuperconducting Magnetic Energy Stores (SMES)FlywheelsSupercapacitorsEnvironmental Aspects of Electrical EnergyGlobal Emissions from Fossil Fuelled Power StationsRegional and Local Emissions from Fossil Fuelled Power StationsThermal Pollution from Power StationsElectromagnetic Radiation from Overhead Lines, Cables and EquipmentVisual and Audible Noise ImpactsTransmission and Distribution SystemsRepresentationTransmissionReasons for InterconnectionDistribution SystemsRural SystemsSuburban SystemsUrban (Town or City) SystemsTypical Power SystemsUSAUKContinental EuropeChina and the Pacific RimUtilizationLoadsLoad ManagementLoad ForecastingProblemsBasic Concepts Three-Phase SystemsAnalysis of Simple Three-Phase CircuitsFour-Wire SystemsThree-Wire Balanced SystemsThree-Wire Unbalanced SystemsThree-Phase TransformersAutotransformersActive and Reactive PowerThe Per-Unit SystemResistance and ImpedanceThree-Phase CircuitsTransformersPower Transfer and Reactive PowerCalculation of Sending and Received Voltages in Terms of Power and Reactive PowerHarmonics in Three-Phase SystemsUseful Network TheoryFour-Terminal NetworksDelta-Star TransformationStar-Delta TransformationProblemsComponents of a Power SystemIntroductionSynchronous MachinesTwo-Axis RepresentationEffect of Saturation on XS - the Short-Circuit RatioTurbogeneratorsEquivalent Circuit Under Balanced Short-Circuit ConditionsSynchronous Generators in ParallelThe Operation of a Generator on an Infinite BusbarThe Performance Chart of a Synchronous GeneratorAutomatic Voltage Regulators (AVRs)Automatic Voltage Regulators and Generator CharacteristicsLines, Cables and TransformersOverhead Lines -Types and ParametersInductance and CapacitanceResistanceRepresentation of LinesThe Short Line (up to 80 km, 50 miles)Medium-Length Lines (up to 240 km, 150 miles)The Long Line (above 240 km, 150 miles)The Natural LoadParameters of Underground CablesTransformersPhase Shifts in Three-Phase TransformersThree-Winding TransformersAutotransformersEarthing (Grounding) TransformersHarmonicsTap-Changing TransformersTypical Parameters for TransformersVoltage Characteristics of LoadsLightingHeatingSynchronous MotorsInduction MotorsProblemsControl of Power and FrequencyIntroductionThe Turbine GovernorControl LoopsDivision of Load between GeneratorsThe Power-Frequency Characteristic of an Interconnected SystemSystem Connected by Lines of Relatively Small CapacityEffect of Governor CharacteristicsFrequency-Bias-Tie-Line ControlProblemsControl of Voltage and Reactive PowerIntroductionThe Generation and Absorption of Reactive PowerSynchronous GeneratorsOverhead Lines and TransformersCablesLoadsRelation between Voltage, Power, and Reactive Power at a Node@Q/д V and the Short-Circuit Current at a NodeMethods of Voltage Control: (a) Injection of Reactive PowerShunt Capacitors and ReactorsSeries CapacitorsSynchronous CompensatorsStatic VAr Compensators (SVCs) and STATCOMsMethods of Voltage Control: (b) Tap-Changing TransformersUse of Tap-Changing Transformers to Control Voltage in a Distribution SystemUse of Tap-Changing Transformers to Despatch VArs in a Transmission SystemCombined Use of Tap-Changing Transformers and Reactive-Power InjectionPhase-Shift TransformerVoltage CollapseVoltage Control in Distribution NetworksUniformly Loaded Feeder from One EndLong LinesSub-Synchronous ResonanceGeneral System ConsiderationsProblemsLoad FlowsIntroductionCircuit Analysis Versus Load Flow AnalysisPower Flow in a Two-Busbar SystemRelationship Between Power Flows and Busbar VoltagesGauss-Seidel MethodLoad Flows in Radial and Simple Loop NetworksLoad Flows in Large SystemsYBUS Matrix with Tap-Changing TransformersThe Newton-Raphson MethodFast Decoupled Load FlowComputer SimulationsProblemsFault AnalysisIntroductionCalculation of Three-Phase Balanced Fault CurrentsCurrent Limiting ReactorsMethod of Symmetrical ComponentsRepresentation of Plant in the Phase-Sequence NetworksThe Synchronous Machine (see Table 3.1)Lines and CablesTransformersTypes of FaultSingle-Line-To-Earth FaultLine-To-Line FaultLine-To-Line-To-Earth Fault (Figure 7.16)Fault Levels in a Typical SystemCircuit Parameters with FaultsFault ResistanceX/R RatioPower in Symmetrical ComponentsSystematic Methods for Fault Analysis in Large NetworksComputer SimulationsNeutral GroundingIntroductionArcing FaultsInterference with Communication Circuits- Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)ProblemsSystem StabilityIntroductionEquation of Motion of a Rotating MachineSteady-State StabilityTransient StabilityReduction to Simple SystemEffect of Automatic Voltage Regulators and GovernorsTransient Stability-Consideration of TimeThe Swing CurveTransient Stability Calculations by ComputerDynamic or Small-Signal StabilityEffects of Governor ActionStability of Loads Leading to Voltage CollapseFurther AspectsFaults on the Feeders to Induction MotorsSteady-State Instability Due to Voltage RegulatorsDynamic StabilityMulti-Machine SystemsTransient Energy Functions (TEF)Improvement of System StabilityProblemsDirect-Current TransmissionIntroductionCurrent Source and Voltage Source ConvertersSemiconductor Valves for High-Voltage Direct-Current ConvertersThyristorsInsulated Gate Bipolar TransistorsCurrent Source Converter h.v.d.c.RectificationCommutationGate ControlBridge ConnectionCurrent Relationships in the Bridge CircuitPower FactorInversionComplete Direct-Current LinkControl of h.v.d.c. LinkTransmission SystemsHarmonicsVariable CompensatorsVoltage Source Converter h.v.d.c.Voltage Source ConverterControl of VSC h.v.d.c.ProblemsOvervoltages and Insulation RequirementsIntroductionGeneration of OvervoltagesLightning SurgesSwitching Surges-Interruption of Short Circuits and Switching OperationsSwitching Surges-Interruption of Capacitive CircuitsCurrent ChoppingFaultsResonanceProtection Against OvervoltagesModification of TransientsSurge DivertersRod GapLightning ArrestorInsulation CoordinationPropagation of SurgesTermination in Inductance and CapacitanceShunt CapacitanceShunt InductanceCapacitance and Resistance in ParallelDetermination of System Voltages Produced by Travelling SurgesBewley Lattice DiagramShort-Line FaultsEffects of Line LossDigital MethodsThree-Phase AnalysisElectromagnetic Transient Program (EMTP)Lumped Element ModellingSwitchingTravelling-Wave ApproachProblemsSubstations and ProtectionIntroductionSwitchgearThe Bulk-Oil Circuit BreakerThe Air-Blast Circuit BreakerSmall- or Low-Oil-Volume Circuit BreakersSulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) GasVacuum InterrupterSummary of Circuit-Breaker RequirementsQualities Required of ProtectionProtective Zones and Back-Up ProtectionComponents of Protective SchemesCurrent Transformers (CTs)Linear CouplersVoltage (or Potential) Transformers (VTs or PTs)RelaysInduction-Disc RelayBalanced BeamDistance RelaysSolid-State RelaysDigital (Numerical) RelayingProtection SystemsOver-Current Protection SchemesDirectional Over-Current Protection SchemesDistance ProtectionUnit Protection SchemesDifferential RelayingGenerator ProtectionTransformer ProtectionFeeder ProtectionDifferential Pilot WireCarrier-Current ProtectionVoice-Frequency SignallingProblemsFundamentals of the Economics of Operation and Planning of Electricity SystemsEconomic Operation of Generation SystemsFundamental Principles of Generation System PlanningEconomic Operation of Transmission SystemsFundamental Principles of Transmission System PlanningDistribution and Transmission Network Security ConsiderationsDrivers for ChangeProblemsFurther Reading
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