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Home arrow Computer Science arrow Safety at the sharp end a guide to non-technical skills

Safety at the sharp end a guide to non-technical skills


Non-technical accidents in aviation and beyondIdentifying and training non-technical skills in aviation and beyondWhy we have written this bookWhat this book is about (and not about)Individual rather than groupBehaviour rather than personalityRoutine as well as unusual situationsTechnically relevant skillsKey pointsReferencesSituation AwarenessSituation awareness and safetyInformation processing in the human brainSensory memoryWorking memoryLong-term memoryModel of situation awarenessFactors affecting situation awarenessTraining situation awarenessMaintaining situation awarenessAssessing situation awarenessConclusionKey pointsReferencesDecision-MakingNaturalistic decision-making (NDM)Model of decision-makingRecognition-primed decision-making(b) Rule-based decision-making(c) Choice decisions(d) Creative decision-makingSummary of decision-making strategiesFactors influencing decision-makingTraining decision-makingTactical decision gamesAssessing decision-making skillsConclusionKey pointsReferencesCommunicationModels of communicationTypes of communicationSpoken communicationNon-verbal communicationWritten communicationRemote communicationBarriers to communicationRecommendations for improving communication in teamsExplicitnessTimingAssertivenessActive listeningBriefingShift handoverPre-mission/task briefDebriefTraining and assessing communicationConclusionKey pointsSuggestions for further readingReferencesTeam WorkingWhat is a team?Elements of team workingSupporting other team membersConflict resolutionExchanging informationWhat makes a good team?Team working problems contributing to accidentsStages of team developmentTeam effectivenessTeamwork and taskwork behavioursTeam identityTeam processes and interventionsTeam decision-makingShared situation awarenessDifficulties in team decision-makingImproving team decision-makingTraining team decision-makingTeam working and stressTraining team workingCross-trainingTeam self-correction trainingEvent-based trainingTeam facilitation trainingAssessing team workingConclusionKey pointsSuggestions for further informationReferencesLeadershipWhat are the skills of leadership?Use of authority and assertivenessProviding and maintaining standardsPlanning and prioritisingManaging workload and resourcesTheories of leadershipTrait theoryStyle theoryContingency/situational theoryTransformational leadership theoryReprinted with permission of Elsevier (JAI press).Summary of leadership theoriesLeadership under stressFollowershipTraining leadership skillsDesigning effective leadership trainingLeadership training techniquesAssessing leadership skillsConclusionKey pointsReferencesManaging StressTheory of stressChronic stressChronic StressorsResources and mediatorsSymptoms of chronic stressIndividual symptomsOrganisational indicatorsDemands of the jobPreventionPrimary preventionSecondary preventionTertiary preventionAcute stressStressorsResources and mediatorsIndividual symptomsTeam symptomsAcute stress effectsAcute stress preventionPrimary preventionSecondary preventionConclusionKey pointsSuggestions for further readingReferencesCoping with FatigueDefinitionFatigue and accidentsMeasuring fatigueCauses and effects of fatigueRecovering from fatigue: SleepStages of sleepSleep regulationSleep homeostasisCircadian rhythmJet lagShiftworkErgonomic shift system designShift worker participationShift working conditions, personal health-related and behavioural resourcesHealth care managementCommutingSleep at homeFamily and social supportFatigue countermeasuresEducationSleep hygieneRest breaksNappingDietMedicationBright lightPlanning for fatigueConclusionKey pointsSuggestions for further readingReferencesIdentifying Non-Technical SkillsEvent-based analysesAccident/near-miss analysisConfidential reporting systemsSummary of event-based analysesQuestioning techniquesInterview methodsInterviewing technique example: critical decision methodPsychological scaling methodsFocus groupsQuestionnairesAttitude questionnairesSummary of questioning techniquesObservationVerbal report methodsComputer-based observational recordingSummary of observationCombined techniquesAviationNuclear industryMedicineConclusionKey pointsSuggestions for further readingReferencesTraining Methods for Non-Technical SkillsFramework of training developmentPhase 1: Needs assessmentPhase 2: Training and developmentCrew resource management (CRM) trainingOther techniques for training non-technical skillsWhich training strategy should be used?Phase 3: Training evaluationOther issues to considerConclusionKey pointsSuggestions for further readingReferencesAssessing Non-Technical SkillsOrigins and evolution of the University of Texas (UT) Behavioural MarkersDesigning a behaviour rating systemSystem content: specified skills/behavioursii) The rating scale and rating formReproduced with permission of Emirates.Behaviour rating systems: psychometric propertiesDesign requirementsUsing a behaviour rating systemConducting the assessment - online or in the simulatorFormal assessmentSelecting and training ratersDifficulties in ratingRecording scenarios for rater trainingDebriefing and facilitation skillsQualifying raters as competentSelf assessmentOrganisational issuesNon-technical skills assessment in practiceAviationHealth careNuclear power industryConclusionKey pointsResourcesReferences
 
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