OECD guidelines on measuring subjective well-being.
MotivationRecent initiativesThe need for guidelinesThe guidelinesScope and objectivesThe structure of the guidelinesNotesConcept and validity Conceptual frameworkElements of subjective well-beingLife evaluationAffectEudaimoniaThe relationship between life evaluation, affect and eudaimoniaThe quality of subjective well-being measuresThe relevance of measures of subjective well-being: Why are they important?Complement other outcome measuresBetter understand the drivers of subjective well-beingPolicy evaluation and cost-benefit analysisIdentifying potential policy problemsThe accuracy of subjective well-being measuresReliabilitySummary: ReliabilityValidityFace validityConvergent validityConstruct validitySummary: ValidityLimits of validitySummary: Limits of validityCoherence and the measurement of subjective well-beingConclusionNotesBibliographyMethodological considerations in the measurement of subjective well-beingIntroductionThe question-answering process and measurement errorPatterns of error - response biases and heuristicsPatterns of error - contextual cueingPatterns of error - individual differencesSummary - factors influencing patterns of errorSummary of issues investigated in this chapterQuestion construction IntroductionQuestion wordingThe issueThe evidence on question comprehensionThe evidence on question wordingThe evidence on translatabilityKey messages on question wordingLength of the reference periodThe issueThe evidence - evaluative measuresThe evidence - affect measuresThe evidence - eudaimonic measuresKey messages on the length of the reference periodResponse formats IntroductionThe number of response options to offerThe issueThe evidence - general research on the number of response optionsThe evidence - evaluative measuresThe evidence - affect and eudaimonia measuresKey messages on scale lengthScale labellingThe issueThe evidence - labelling scale anchorsThe evidence - labelling scale intervals or response optionsKey messages on scale labellingUnipolar versus bipolar measuresThe issueThe evidenceKey messages on unipolar and bipolar scalesOrder and presentation of response categoriesThe issueThe evidenceKey messages on the order and presentation of response categoriesCross-cutting issues and overall messages on response formatsQuestion context, placement and order effects IntroductionQuestion context and the impact of question orderThe issueThe evidenceKey messages on question context and the impact of question orderQuestion order within a subjective well-being moduleThe issueThe evidenceKey messages on question order within a subjective well-being question moduleSurvey source and introductory textThe issueThe evidenceKey messages on survey source and introductory textMode effects and survey context IntroductionSurvey modeThe issueThe evidenceKey messages on survey modeWider survey context effectsThe issueKey messages on wider survey context effectsResponse styles and the cultural context IntroductionResponse styles and shared method varianceThe issueThe evidenceKey messages on response stylesCultural differences in response styles and scale useThe issueThe evidence - wider literatureThe evidence - subjective well-beingKey messages on cultural response styles and differences in scale useOverall messages on response styles and scale useOverall conclusions and priorities for future workQuestion wording and response formatsRecommendationsPriorities for future workQuestion order and context effectsRecommendationsPriorities for future workSurvey mode and timingRecommendationsPriorities for future workResponse styles and international comparabilityRecommendationsPriorities for future workNotesBibliographyMeasuring subjective well-beingIntroductionCore measures of subjective well-beingWhat to measure? Planning the measurement of subjective well-beingUser needsAnalysisOutputQuestionnaire designWhat other information should be collected:Co-variates and analytical variablesDemographicsMaterial conditionsPsychological measuresTime-use diariesSurvey and sample designTarget populationChildrenPeople not living in private householdsFrequency and duration of enumerationDuration of enumerationSample sizeModeSurvey vehiclesIntegrated household surveysGeneral social surveysTime-use surveysVictimisation surveysHealth surveysSpecial topic surveysPanel surveysQuestionnaire designQuestion placementQuestion order within and between subjective well-being modulesTranslationChoice of questionsA. Core measuresB. Life evaluationC. AffectD. Eudaimonic well-beingE. Domain evaluationsF. Experienced well-beingQuestion templatesObjectivesOriginCompletion timeOutputGuidelinesSurvey implementationInterviewer trainingEthical issuesCoding and data processingNotesBibliographyOutput and analysis of subjective well-being measuresIntroductionUsing subjective well-being to complement other outcome measures IntroductionWhat does "measuring well-being?" mean, and why do it?Approaches to measuring well-beingThe role of subjective well-being in measuring well-beingReporting subjective well-being dataReporting central tendency and levelAggregation of multi-item measuresAggregating several subjective well-being indicators into an overall indexReporting change over time and differences between groupsMethods for reporting change over time and differences between groupsAnalysing and interpreting descriptive subjective well-being dataWhat size differences can be expected?What influences effect sizes?What alternative explanations should be considered for observed differences in subjective well-being?What is the role of culture in international comparisons, and can data be "corrected" for "cultural bias"?Methods for examining and "correcting" cultural biasBetter understanding the drivers of subjective well-being IntroductionWhat does "better understanding the drivers" mean, and why does it matter?Life events and life circumstances as drivers of subjective well-beingUsing subjective well-being data to inform the options appraisal, design and evaluation of policiesUsing subjective well-being data to inform policy trade-offsMethods: How can drivers of subjective well-being be analysed?Data requirements, survey design principles and causalityMethods for analysis: Tests of associationWhat constitutes a significant association?Interpreting drivers of subjective well-beingWhat size of impact can be expected?How can the impacts of different drivers be compared?Subjective well-being as an input to cost-benefit analysis IntroductionWhat is cost-benefit analysis, and how can subjective well-being data help?Approaches to valuationThe role of subjective well-being data in valuationMethods: How can subjective well-being data be used to value non-market factors?Direction of change: Loss aversionUsing subjective well-being to adjust preference dataChallenges in the interpretation of subjective well-being valuationsSensitivity of life evaluationsMeasurement error in estimating regression coefficientsCo-variates to include in the regression modelTime horizonsCombining non-market and market prices in cost-benefit analysisConclusionsNotesBibliography