Thermal Protective Clothing for Firefighters

A brief background on thermal protective clothing for firefightersFires and thermal environmentsUncontrolled firesWildfiresStructural building firesVehicle firesPresent scenario on uncontrolled fires in the United StatesThermal environments faced by firefightersThermal intensity faced by firefightersTypes of thermal exposures faced by firefightersSkin burn injuries and heat stress/fatalitiesBurn injuriesFirst-degree burnsSecond-degree burnsThird-degree burnsFourth-degree burnsSkin burns modelsHeat stress/fatalitiesBio-heat transfer modelChen and Holmes modelWeinbaum, Jiji, and Lemos modelPresent scenario on firefighter injuries and fatalities in the United StatesDevelopment of high performance W7 thermal protective clothing Development of fire-retardant/resistant fibersChemically modified fire-retardant fibersInherently fire-resistant fibersSummary and conclusionDevelopment of high performance fabricsShell fabricsThermal linersMoisture barriersComposite fabricsDevelopment of thermal protective clothingPerformance evaluation of thermal protective clothing Softening/melting temperature and flammability evaluationThermal protective performance evaluationDevelopment and application of different sensor typesEvaluation of thermal protective performance using bench-scale testsEvaluation of thermal protective performance using full-scale stationary manikin systemsEvaluation of thermal protective performance using full-scale dynamic manikin systemsClothing comfort (physiological) evaluationEvaluation/calculation and assessment of thermal resistance, evaporative resistance, and THL of fabricsThermal resistance evaluationEvaporative resistance evaluationTHL calculationAssessment of thermal resistance, evaporative resistance, and THLEvaluation/calculation and assessment of thermal and evaporative resistance of clothingThermal resistance evaluationEvaporative resistance evaluationWorking principles of various manikins to evaluate thermal and evaporative resistanceAssessment of thermal and evaporative resistanceEvaluation and assessment of physiological clothing comfort using human trialsEvaluation of clothing comfort using human trialsModeling and its implications on performance of thermal protective clothingHeat and/or mass transfer modelsAnalytical modelsNumerical modelsSummary and recommendationsMetabolic heat and/or sweat-vapor transfer modelsAnalytical modelsNumerical modelsFurther research directionsEffects of various factors on performance of thermal protective clothingFiber propertiesFineness or linear densityCross-sectionLengthCrimpYarn PropertiesTypesTwistConfigurationFabric propertiesSurface propertiesStructural properties (weave/knit design and porosity)Physical properties (weight, thickness, and density)Thermal properties (thermal conductivity or diffusivity, heat capacity)Moisture accumulation propertiesClothing featuresStitch and seamFit, closures, and location of fastenerMicroclimate regionKey issues related to thermal protective clothingThermal protective performance evaluationDesign of thermal protective clothing
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