The knowledge resources and models relative to cultural heritage
In this section, we present the different knowledge resources to consider when developing a solution of cultural heritage documentation and promotion.
A metadata norm is a metadata schema made up of a set of properties and vocabularies developed by specific communities (libraries, archives, museums, editors, etc.) and used to describe the data in order to resolve specific problems like the structuring and exchange of data [DOE 06].
Metadata norms, however, are generally thought up for general descriptions; they are not intended to describe the semantic richness of the domain. The use of these metadata elements is useful for indexing and to achieve better interoperability between systems [ZAB 12].
Dublin Core is a metadata schema based on 15 essential properties to describe online and physical resources [WEL 10]. The 15 elements are
contributor, coverage, creator, date, description, format, identifier, language, publisher, relation, rights, source, subject, title and type.
The use of these elements can be combined with the DMCI Type vocabulary to designate the possible type of a resource, such as text, sound and image. Other vocabularies can be used as well, like DDC, LCC, LCSH, MESH, TGN, and UDC.
There are also qualified elements of Dublin Core that refine the 15 base elements, like hasPart and hasVersion, which refine the relation property. In the same way, the created and modified properties refine the date property.
Furthermore, the Dublin Core schema defines a certain number of classes that are used with the Dublin Core properties. For example, the property medium (material) associates the class PhysicalResource with the class PhysicalMedium to document the material observed in a physical resource.
In the following example (Figure 6.1), Dublin Core is used to add metadata on the Mona Lisa. As we can see, Dublin Core elements do not give rich, precise semantics. For example, the
With dates, too, we cannot know the real meaning of the
- - the production date;
- - the completion date;
- - the date of acquisition by a museum.
Even when we use Dublin Core’s qualified elements, we still need richer semantics, particularly for a domain as complex as cultural heritage.
Figure 6.1. An example of Dublin Core elements