Occupational Safety and Health: fundamental principles and philosophies

PrefaceSection A Occupational Safety and HealthIntroductionWhy Is Occupational Safety and Health Needed?The Components of Safety and Health InitiativesSummaryFurther ReadingsHistoryEvolution of OSHResults from HistoryFurther ReadingsHazardsFurther ReadingsOccupational SafetySummaryFurther ReadingsOccupational HealthHealth HazardsHealth Hazard PreventionIdentifying Health HazardsQuick Health Hazard Identification ChecklistSummaryFurther ReadingsSection B Organizing Safety and HealthManage Occupational Safety and HealthWhy Management?Safety and Health (Managing)Why Is Managing Safety and Health a Needed Entity?Summary: Why Management?Further ReadingsSafety and Health ProgramsWhy Have a Comprehensive Safety and Health Program?Why Build an Occupational Safety and Health Program?Components of a Safety and Health ProgramEvaluative Questions Regarding Safety and Health ProgramsTools for a Safety and Health Program AssessmentWhy Other Required Written Programs?SummaryFurther ReadingsSpecial Emphasis ProgramsSummaryFurther ReadingsAccident InvestigationsReporting AccidentsSummaryFurther ReadingsTrainingWhen to TrainWhy Train New Employees?Why Train Supervisors?Why Train Employees?Why Communications?Why Is Training a Key Element?Why OSHA Training?Why a Legal Basis for Training?SummaryFurther ReadingsSection C AdministrationSafety and Health BudgetHealth BudgetingSafety BudgetingManagement BudgetingProduct Safety BudgetingCompliance FactorsWritten BudgetControlling CostSummaryFurther ReadingsStatistics and TrackingAnalyzing Incident DataOSHA Record KeepingCompany RecordsImportant Ancillary Data Needed for More Complete AnalysisSafety and Health Statistics DataStatistical Analysis for ComparisonsWorkers' CompensationSummaryFurther ReadingsSafety and Health EthicsEthicsOccupational Safety and Health EthicsFurther ReadingsEmployee InvolvementWhy Should Employees Be Involved?Why Does Management Have to Be Involved?Why Employee Involvement?Why Are Employee Outcomes Important?Why Are Goals Needed for Employee Involvement?SummaryFurther ReadingsJoint Labor/Management Safety and Health CommitteesRecord KeepingDo's and Don'ts of L/M Committees Do's:ExpectationsJoint L/M Occupational Safety and Health CommitteesSummaryFurther ReadingsWorkplace InspectionsNeed for an InspectionWhen to Inspect?What to Inspect?Types of Inspection InstrumentsSummaryFurther ReadingsSection D Personnel Involved in Occupational Safety and HealthManagement's Commitment and InvolvementWhy Roles and Responsibilities?Why Management?Further ReadingsLine SupervisorsWorkersSafety Director or ManagerSafety and Health ProfessionalIndustrial HygienistWhy an Industrial Hygienist?When an Industrial Hygienist Is NeededFurther ReadingsSafety and Health ConsultantWhy a Need for a Consultant?Interviewing a ConsultantWhy a Scope of Work?The Hiring ProcessSummaryFurther ReadingsSection E People-Related IssuesMotivating Safety and HealthSetting the StageDefining MotivationPrinciples of MotivationThe Motivational EnvironmentStructuring the Motivational EnvironmentSimplify MotivationThe Key PersonSummaryFurther ReadingsBehavior-Based SafetyBehavior-Based Safety TodayBBS DescribedHindrances to Implementing BBSSummaryFurther ReadingsSafety CultureDefining Safety CultureDeveloping or Changing a Safety CulturePositive Safety CultureAssessing Safety CultureSummaryFurther ReadingsCommunicating Safety and HealthThe CommunicatorCommunication ToolsWritten MaterialsBulletin BoardsElectronic SignsComputersSafety and Health PostersPublic Address SystemSafety TalksSummaryFurther ReadingsBullyingData Regarding BullyingFacts about BullyingWhy Bullying Occurs?Why Prevention of Bullying?SummaryFurther ReadingsSafety (Toolbox) TalksIncentives/RewardsIncentivesIncentive ProgramsSummaryFurther ReadingsSection F HazardsHazard IdentificationHazard Identification for ProtectionFurther ReadingsHazard AnalysisHazards and RiskHazard AnalysisFurther ReadingsRoot Cause AnalysisForms of Root Cause AnalysisRoot (Basic) Cause AnalysisRoot Cause Analysis MethodsSystem Safety EngineeringFurther ReadingsCostThe True Bottom LineCost of AccidentsSummaryFurther ReadingsSection G RiskAcceptable or Tolerable RiskWhy Can Risk Be Tolerated at an Acceptable Level?Further ReadingsRisk AssessmentDeveloping a Risk AssessmentPurpose of Risk AssessmentExplaining the Risk AssessmentRisk EvaluationSummaryFurther ReadingsRisk ManagementRisk Management ComponentsWhy Manage Risk?SummaryFurther ReadingsSection H Controlling HazardsDesigning for PreventionDesigning for HumansDesigners' ResponsibilityFurther ReadingsControlsTechnical Aspect of Hazard ControlsSource ControlControl along the Path from the Hazard to the WorkerBarriersAbsorptionDilutionControl at the Level of the WorkerSelecting ControlsRisk ControlEvaluating the Effectiveness of ControlsAwareness DevicesWork PracticesAdministrative ControlsWork Procedures, Training, and SupervisionHazard Prevention and ControlsHazard Control SummarySummaryFurther ReadingsPersonal Protective EquipmentWhy a Hazard Assessment?Why Establish a PPE Program?SummaryFurther ReadingsOccupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)OSHA StandardsProtections under the OSHActNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)Employer Responsibilities under the OSHActWorkers' Rights and Responsibilities under the OSHActDiscrimination against WorkersRight to InformationOSHA InspectionsWorker TrainingOccupational Injuries and IllnessesSummaryFurther ReadingsSection I Accident/Incident Prevention TechniquesSafe Operating ProceduresWhy Are SOPs Beneficial?What Are the Components Needed to Develop an SOP?Why SOPs Are Poorly WrittenSummaryFurther ReadingsJob Safety AnalysisWhy Four Basic Steps in Developing a JSA/JHA?Why Select Jobs by Using Criteria?Why Identify the Hazards Associated with Each Job Step?Why Consider Human Problems in the JSA/JHA Process?Why Must Ways to Eliminate or Control Hazards Be Developed?Why Change Job Procedures?Why Change the Frequency of Performing a Job?Why Consider PPE?SummaryFurther ReadingsJob Safety ObservationWhy Select a Job or Task for a Planned JSO?Why Preparing for a JSO Is Necessary?Why a Checklist of Activities to Be Observed Is NeededWhy the Observation?Why Conduct a Postobservation?Why Deal with Unsafe Behaviors or Poor Performance?SummaryFurther ReadingsFleet SafetyWhy Have a Fleet Safety Program?Why Vehicle Maintenance?Why Is Driver/Operator Selection Important?Why and What Records Need to Be Maintained?SummaryFurther ReadingsPreventive Maintenance ProgramsWhy Specific Components Are Needed for an Effective PMP?Why Preventive Maintenance?Why Management's Role?Why a Formalized PMP?Why the Operator Should Conduct Inspections?Why Maintenance?Why Management's Responsibility?SummaryFurther ReadingsSection J Extraneous HazardsEmergency PlanningWhy Are Certain Elements Required or Recommended?Why Preplan?SummaryFurther ReadingsWorkplace Security and ViolenceWorkplace Violence StatisticsRisk FactorsPrevention Strategies and SecurityEnvironmental DesignAdministrative ControlsBehavioral StrategiesPerpetrator and Victim ProfileCost of Violence Is a Reason to Address ItPrevention EffortsWhy Program Development and Essential Elements?Types of Workplace Violence and EventsType I EventsType II EventsType III EventsWhy Address Workplace Violence?SummaryFurther ReadingsExternal Force: TerrorismHardening Facilities Increases ProtectionPotential Terrorist's WeaponsProtection from Chemical, Biological, or Radiological AttacksSummaryFurther ReadingsOff-the-Joh SafetySection K Miscellaneous Safety and Health FactorsHuman FactorsDefining Human FactorsHuman Factor SafetyHuman CharacteristicsWhy Human Causal Factors?Benefits of Using Human FactorsSummaryFurther ReadingsErgonomicsForceRepetitionAwkward PosturesStatic PosturesVibrationContact StressCold TemperaturesExtent of the ProblemDeveloping an Ergonomic ProgramPhysical Work Activities and ConditionsLimits of ExposureErgonomic ControlsIdentifying ControlsAssessing ControlsImplementing ControlsTracking ProgressProactive ErgonomicsFurther ReadingsProduct SafetyWhy a Safe Design Approach Should Be EmployedPrinciples of Safe DesignLegal ObligationsConsultationWhen Developing a Safe Design Action PlanWhat Is Consumer Product Safety Screening?Why Are Products Screened for Safety?How Is Safety Screening Done?Labeling—What Does It All Mean?SummaryFurther ReadingsSection L Safe Facilities and HandlingFire Prevention and Life SafetyWhy Address Fire Hazards?Causes of FiresWhat the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards RequireAvoiding FiresFire Safety and ProtectionFire PreventionManaging Fire SafetyThe Importance of Fire Safety and Life Safety DesignFPP RequirementsFire Protection SummaryFurther ReadingsHazardous MaterialsWhy Hazmats Need Special HandlingTransportation of HazmatsStorage and PackingTransportingRegulations and HazmatsHazardous WasteUS Hazardous WasteFinal Disposal of HWRecyclingPortland CementIncineration, Destruction, and Waste-to-EnergyHW Landfill (Sequestering, Isolation, Etc.)SummaryFurther ReadingsTransportationEmployer's ResponsibilityTransporting MaterialsEmployees of Transportation BusinessesSummaryFurther ReadingsSection M Meshing Safety with Management ApproachesProcess Safety ManagementProcess DevelopmentProcess Hazard AnalysisOperating ProceduresSafe Work PracticesEmployee ParticipationTraining Initial TrainingRefresher TrainingTraining DocumentationContractorsEmployer ResponsibilitiesContract Employer ResponsibilitiesPre-Start-Up Safety ReviewMechanical IntegrityHot Work PermitManagement of ChangeIncident InvestigationEmergency Planning and ResponseCompliance AuditsTrade SecretsOSHA's ResponseSummaryFurther ReadingsTotal Quality ManagementDevelopment of TQM in the United StatesFeatures of TQMDefinitionTQM Implementation ApproachesSafety and Health Integrated into TQMThe Concept of Continuous Improvement by TQMSteps in Managing the TransitionSummaryFurther ReadingsLean SafetyNew Approaches: Lean Safety and SustainabilityBenefits of Lean SafetyChallenges of Lean SafetyChanging CultureLearning and TrainingSustainabilitySummaryFurther Readings
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