OSHA standards found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) include the standards for the following industry groups: construction; maritime; agriculture; general industry, which includes manufacturing; transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trades; finance; insurance; and services. OSHA standards and regulations for OSH are found in Title 29 of the CFR and can be obtained through the Government Printing Office (GPO). The standards for specific industries are found in Title 29 of the CFR.
Protections under the OSHAct
Usually, all employers and their employees are considered to be protected under the OSHAct, with the exception of the following:
- • Self-employed persons
- • Farms where only immediate family members are employed
- • Workplaces already protected under federal statutes by other federal agencies such as the Department of Energy and the Mine Safety and Health Administration
- • State and local employees
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Although the formation of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was a requirement of the OSHAct of 1970, NIOSH is not part of OSHA. NIOSH is one of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. NIOSH reports to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and not to the Department of Labor (DOL) as OSHA does. Its functions are as follows:
- • To recommend new safety and health standards to OSHA
- • To conduct research on various safety and health problems
- • To conduct health hazard evaluations (HHEs) of the workplace when called upon
- • To publish an annual listing of all known toxic substances and recommended exposure limits (RELs)
- • To conduct training that will provide qualified personnel under the OSHAct
An employer, worker's representative, or worker can request a HHE from NIOSH to have a potential health problem investigated. It is best to use the NIOSH standard form. It can be obtained by calling 1-800-35-NIOSH.