Why Four Basic Steps in Developing a JSA/JHA?

JSA/JHA involves four basic steps:

  • 1. Select a job to be analyzed.
  • 2. Separate the job into its basic steps.
  • 3. Identify the hazards associated with each step.
  • 4. Control each hazard.

This is why looking at these four steps in detail will help explain the process and value of this type of analysis.

Why Select Jobs by Using Criteria?

The first step of a JSA/JHA is to select a job to be analyzed. The sequence in which jobs are analyzed should be established when starting a JSA/JHA program. Potential jobs for analysis should have sequential steps and a work goal when these steps are performed.

To use the JSA/JHA program effectively, a method must be established to select and prioritize the jobs to be analyzed. The jobs must be ranked in order of greatest accident potential. Jobs with the highest risks should be analyzed first. Workers and supervisors may or may not be involved with the ranking process, but if asked to rank or prioritize jobs to be analyzed, the following criteria should be used: accident frequency, accident severity, judgment and experience, new jobs, nonroutine jobs, job changes, and routine jobs.

A form should be developed that will allow for a written record for each JSA to be maintained. In the JSA process, it is easiest to deal with each column of the form separately. Logically, the job should be broken down into its basic steps first. Each step or activity should briefly describe what is done. Each activity should be listed on the form in the order it is accomplished. At this point in the analysis, two things need to be done: first, observe the job actually being performed (if possible, this should be done by more than one person), and second, involve at least one employee who does the job regularly in the analysis. The first step might be to do a walk-around inspection. When outlining the job steps, it will be tempting to get very detailed and list how to do the job rather than the basic job steps. The list of job steps in the "Sequence of Basic Job Steps" column of the JSA/ JHA form will continue to be broken down into manageable steps. It is important that the JSA/JHA accurately describes the work. There may be some disagreement about basic job steps.

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