Static Postures

Static postures (or static loading) refer to physical exertion in which the same posture or position is held throughout the exertion. These types of exertions put increased loads or forces on the muscles and tendons, which contribute to fatigue. This occurs because not moving impedes the flow of blood that is needed to bring nutrients to the muscles and to carry away the waste products of muscle metabolism.


Vibration is the oscillatory motion of a physical body. Localized vibration, such as vibration of the hand and arm, occurs when a specific part of the body comes into contact with vibrating objects such as powered hand tools (e.g., chain saw, electric drill, chipping hammer) or equipment (e.g., wood planer, punch press, packaging machine). Whole-body vibration occurs when standing or sitting in vibrating environments (e.g., driving a truck over bumpy roads) or when using heavy vibrating equipment that requires whole-body involvement (e.g., jackhammers).

Contact Stress

Contact stress results from occasional, repeated, or continuous contact between sensitive body tissue and a hard or sharp object. Contact stress commonly affects the soft tissue on the fingers, palms, forearms, thighs, shins, and feet. This contact may create pressure over a small area of the body (e.g., wrist, forearm), which can inhibit blood flow, tendon and muscle movement, and nerve function. Examples of contact stress include resting wrists on the sharp edge of a desk or workstation while performing tasks and the pressing of tool handles into the palms.

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