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Many HWs can be recycled into new products. Examples may include lead acid batteries or electronic circuit boards. When heavy metals in these types of ashes go through the proper treatment, they could bind to other pollutants and convert them into easier-to-dispose-of solids, or they could be used as pavement filling. Such treatments reduce the level of threat of harmful chemicals, like fly and bottom ash, while also recycling the safe product.

Portland Cement

Another commonly used treatment is cement-based solidification and stabilization. Cement is used because it can treat a range of HWs by improving physical characteristics and decreasing the toxicity and transmission of contaminants. The cement produced is categorized into five different divisions, depending on its strength and components. This process of converting sludge into cement might include the addition of pH adjustment agents, phosphates, or sulfur reagents to reduce the settling or curing time, increase the compressive strength, or reduce the leachability of contaminants.

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