Original sources and other scholarly readings
Scholarly research requires reading original sources, including the speech that a president actually delivered, not a summary of the speech. Scholarly articles in peer-reviewed journals should be read in addition to the summaries provided in newspaper articles or on television news. Accessing all types of information is an important step in understanding an issue from many different perspectives.
Many scientific articles are available from the National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine (NLM). We have provided the NLM PubMed link for those articles that are available through the NLM. In most cases, the full text of the article is available. A tutorial is provided for those who might need assistance in accessing the material.
Presidential executive orders, speeches, radio addresses, and remarks are available to the public at a variety of government sites, including the Government Publishing Office (http:// www.gpo.gov) and the National Archives (http://www.archives.gov). A number of universities maintain presidential papers. The University of California, Santa Barbara houses The American Presidency Project, which provides easy access to many presidential documents.
- 1. G. W. Bush, Address to the nation on stem cell research, August 9, 2001, in Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: George Bush, 2001, Book 2, July 1-December 31, 2001, 954, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001; available at https:// georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/08/20010811-1.html.
- 2. G. W. Bush E.O. 13435 of June 22, 2007, Expanding approval of stem cell lines in ethically responsible ways. Federal Register, 72 (120): 34591-34593; https://www.gpo.gov/ fdsys/pkg/FR-2007-06-22/pdf/07-3112.pdf.
- 3. G. W. Bush. Remarks on returning without approval to the Senate the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2007, in Presidential Papers of the Presidents—George W. Bush, Book 01, Presidential Documents—January 1-June 30, 2007, June 20, 2007, 775-777; https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2006/07/20060719-5.html.
- 4. B. Obama, E.O. 13505, Removing barriers to responsible scientific research involving human stem cells. March 9, 2009. Federal Register, 74 (46), March 11, 2009: 1066710668; https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2009-03-11/pdf/E9-5441.pdf.
- 5. B. Obama, Remarks of the President—As Prepared for Delivery—Signing of Stem Cell Executive Order and Scientific Integrity Presidential Memorandum. https://www.whhe- house.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-prepared-delivery-signing-stem-cell-exe- cutive-order-and-scientifi.
- 6. California, Text of Proposition 71, California Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative; https://www.cdph.ca.gov/services/boards/HSCR/Documents/MO-Prop71-08-2007.pdf.
- 7. California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, About CIRM; https://www.cirm.ca.gov.
- 8. Text of Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005, and 2007, and 2009 and 2011. https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/109/hr810; https://www.govtrack.us/congress/ bills/110/s5; https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/111/s487.
Secondary analysis and news articles
- 1. NIH, State Initiatives for Stem Cell Research; http://stemcells.nih.gov/research/state- research.htm.
- 2. D. E. Jensen, Evaluating California’s stem cell experiment, The Sacramento Bee, November 15, 2014; http://www.sacbee.com/opinion/california-forum/article3924977. html.
- 3. J. P. Lefkowitz. Stem cells and the President—An inside account, Commentary, January 1, 2008, 125 (1):19-24, p. 21; https://www.commentarymagazine.com/author/jay-lefkowitz/.
- 4. California Institute for Regenerative Medicine; https://cirm.ca.gov.
- 5. N. Wade, Stem cell researchers feel the pull of the golden state, New York Times, May 22, 2005: B 5; http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/22/us/stem-cell-researchers-feel-the-pull- of-the-golden-state.html.
- 6. J. W. Adelson and J. K Weinberg, The California stem cell initiative: Persuasion, politics, and public service, American Journal of Public Health, 100 (3), March 2010: 446-451; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2820047/.
- 7. A. B. Parson, The Proteus Effect: Stem Cells and Their Promise for Medicine, Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 2004.
- 8. W. Wayt Gibbs, The California Gambit, Scientific American, June 27, 2005 at http://www. scientificamerican.com/article/the-california-gambit/.