Social Cognitive Model of SRL

Zimmerman’s (1989, 1990a, 1990b, 1998, 2000a) social cognitive model of self-regulation, as indicated by its name, is based on Bandura’s (1986a, 1986b) social cognitive learning theory. According to this model, selfregulation involves three categories of determinants, that is, individual, behavior, and environment. This triadic reciprocal views determinism, covert personal, behavioral, and environmental events as separable but at the same time interdependent factors influencing individuals’ functioning. Covert self-regulation involves monitoring and adjusting cognitive and affective states. Behavioral self-regulation consists of self-observing and strategically adjusting performance processes. Finally, environmental selfregulation includes observing and adjusting environmental conditions or outcomes (Zimmerman, 1990a, 1998).

There are different sources of personal, environmental, and behavioral influence. Self-efficacy and goals or intentions are included among the key person influences. In addition, a learner’s knowledge, metacognitive and affective processes are also assumed to play a vital role in self-regulation. Major categories of behavioral influence are self-observation, judgment, self-reaction, and environmental structuring. There are two major classes of environmental influence: the physical context, and material and social resources.

According to Zimmerman (2000a), self-regulation is cyclical in nature. He defines self-regulation as self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal goals. In other words, feedback obtained from prior learning experience is used to adjust goals, strategy choice, and so forth for subsequent efforts. These adjustments, assumed to reduce performance discrepancies both proactively and reactively, are necessary because personal, behavioral, and environmental factors constantly change during learning.

The cyclical phases of self-regulation include a forethought phase, a performance phase, and a self-reflection phase (Zimmerman, 2000a). The forethought phase refers to processes that precede and prepare actions. Two kinds of processes are included: processes relative to task analysis (i.e., goal setting and strategic planning) and those relating to motivational beliefs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intrinsic motivation or valuing and process versus outcome goal orientation). The performance control phase includes two categories of processes, that is, self-control and self-observation. Self-control processes, such as self-instruction and attention focusing and task strategies, help learners to concentrate on the task and optimize their efforts; for example, task strategies aid learning by reducing the task to its essential components and reorganizing them in a meaningful manner (Zimmerman, 2000a). Self-observation processes (i.e., self-recording and self-experimentation), on the other hand, refer to tracing specific aspects of one’s own performance. The last phase, self-reflection, includes two types of processes closely related to self-observation: self-judgment and self-reaction. Self-judgment refers to self-evaluations of one’s own performance and to causal attributions concerning the results; self-reaction contains self-satisfaction, that is, perceptions of (dis)satisfac- tion and affect regarding performance and inferences about what will have to change in future self-regulation demanding situations. Due to the cyclical nature of self-regulation, self-reflection further influences forethought processes.

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