A considerable body of research has shown that self-efficacy is a highly effective predictor of students’ motivation and learning and also a key variable affecting SRL (e.g., Bandura, 1977a, 1977b, 1986a; Zimmerman, 1986, 1990b). Self-efficacy is defined as “people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances” (Bandura, 1986a, p.391) and is the most influential of all the personal factors that affect behavior (Bandura, 1986a). This multidimensional construct varies in strength, generality, and level (or difficulty). Thus, some people have a strong sense of selfefficacy and others do not; some have efficacy beliefs that encompass many situations, whereas others have narrow efficacy beliefs; and some believe they are efficacious even on the most difficult tasks, whereas others believe they are efficacious only on easier tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs influence actions taken, effort expended, perseverance, resiliency, emotional impact of thoughts, stress, and perceptions of accomplishment (Bandura, 1997) and it is often a better predictor of academic performance (Zimmerman, 2000b).

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