SRL Strategies and Academic Performance
Students’ use of SRL strategies has been extensively studied and found to have an important influence on academic achievement (e.g., Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990; Pintrich & Garcia, 1991; Schraw & Dennison, 1994). Researchers have also tried to categorize and measure the strategies students use for SRL. Two instruments widely used by researchers are the Self-Regulated Learning Interview Schedule developed by Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons (1986) and the MSLQ developed by Pintrich et al. (1991).
Based on interviews with high school students about self-reported learning strategies, Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons (1986) identified 14 categories of SRL strategies that are highly related to academic achievement. These strategies are: self-evaluation; organizing and transforming; subgoal setting and planning; seeking information; keeping records and self-monitoring; environmental structuring; self-consequences; rehearsing and memorizing; seeking peer assistance; seeking teacher assistance; seeking adult assistance; reviewing notes; reviewing tests; and reviewing text books.
Pintrich et al. (1991), in the development of the MSLQ, measured students’ use of learning strategies, including rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, metacognitive SRL, time and study environment, effort regulation, peer learning, and help seeking. These strategies belong to three general types of scales in the learning strategies section of the
MSLQ: cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management. Cognitive strategies consist of rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking. Metacognitive strategies are measured by one subscale concerning the use of strategies that help students control and regulate their own cognition. Resource management includes time and study environment, effort regulation, peer learning, and help seeking.
Previous studies indicated that students’ use of SRL strategies is highly predictive of academic achievement (e.g., Hwang & Vrongistinos, 2002; Pintrich & DeGroot, 1990; Pintrich & Garcia, 1991; Schraw & Dennison, 1994; Yu et al., 2003; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986, 1988, 1990). For instance, after designing and developing the structured interview to measure students’ use of SRL strategies, Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons (1986) selected 40 sophomores from the advanced-achievement group and 40 sophomores from a lower-achievement group. Students were interviewed about their use of SRL strategies using the developed structured interview. Results indicated the SRL strategies were substantially correlated with academic achievement. The high-achievement group reported significantly greater use of SRL strategies than the low-achievement group. Pintrich and DeGroot (1990) found that cognitive strategies of rehearsal, elaboration, and organization were closely related to academic performance in the classroom. Pintrich and Garcia (1991) studied metacognition, rehearsal, organization, and elaboration strategies in college students. They found that students who attempted to control their cognition and behavior through planning, monitoring, and regulating strategies had better academic performance. Hwang and Vrongistinos (2002) found that SRL was associated with academic performance. The results of the study showed that elementary education majors who performed high academically used self-regulated strategies significantly more than students who performed poorly.