This chapter first presented the theoretical foundation of motivational regulation study, mainly focusing on SRL. Social cognitive learning theory and two models of SRL based on social cognitive learning theory were introduced. A review of theoretical accounts and empirical studies about motivational regulation, including the studies investigating the motivational regulation strategies used by learners and examining the relations of motivational regulation with other components of SRL such as motivational beliefs and SRL strategies and academic achievement followed. It pointed out that the studies about motivational regulation are inadequate and there are still some unresolved problems pertaining to motivational regulation, for instance, there is a lack of consistent terminology and taxonomy for motivational regulation strategies; the evidence linking students’ regulation of motivation to their achievement is weak; the types of motivational regulation strategies examined are limited. Therefore, the review indicates that more research is needed to further examine motivational regulation. Two other components of SRL, motivational component and SRL strategies, were also reviewed. Two general types of motivational beliefs, that is, self-efficacy and academic-goal orientations and previous studies about SRL strategies were introduced.