Self-efficacy and Foreign Language Learning
Although the concept of self-efficacy has been introduced as a factor in L2 motivation, self-efficacy beliefs have been rarely investigated in relation to SLA (Wang, 2004; Wong, 2005). Among the limited studies of language self-efficacy, Zhong (2004) found that language self-efficacy of Chinese non-English major college students was positively related to language learning strategies and English achievement. Wong (2005) explored graduate preservice teachers’ language-learning strategies and language selfefficacy and the relationship between these two constructs in Malaysia. The results of Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive relationship between language self-efficacy and languagelearning strategies. Interview findings in this study further indicated that high self-efficacy preservice teachers reported more frequent use of greater range of language learning strategies than did low self-efficacy pre-service teachers. Magogwe and Oliver (2007) explored the relationship between language learning strategies, age, proficiency, and self-efficacy beliefs among language learners in Botswana. The results of the study indicated that self-efficacy beliefs positively and significantly correlated with language learning strategies, suggesting that an increase in self-efficacy belief is related to an increase in use of language-learning strategies. Kim, Wang, Ahn, and Bong (2015) studied the latent profiles of English language learners’ self-efficacy beliefs and found three groups representing high, medium, and low self-efficacy profiles. They also examined the differences in the use of SRL strategies between the three groups and the results revealed significant differences between students with low-efficacy beliefs and those with high/medium-efficacy beliefs in using SRL strategies. Mills, Pajares, and Herron (2007) examined the influence of self-efficacy and other motivational beliefs on the achievement of college intermediate French students. They found that students’ grade self-efficacy and selfefficacy for self-regulation both positively related to students’ final grade. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-efficacy for self-regulation was a stronger predictor of intermediate French language achievement than was self-efficacy to obtain grades in French. Da (2007) explored the structural model of factors affecting CET4 (College English Test Band Four) scores of non-English major Chinese college students. The factors examined in this study consisted of English self-efficacy, English-learning anxiety, and English learning strategy. The study found that English selfefficacy was significantly and positively correlated to the use of English learning strategies and CET4 scores, and significantly but negatively correlated to English-learning anxiety. The multiple regression analyses showed that English self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of CET4 scores, and the path analyses indicated that self-efficacy directly affected CET4 scores.