Goals are broad statements that indicate how your project (if successful) will help meet a need, solve a problem, fill a gap, or change a situation. There is a close relationship between the problem statement and the goal set in a grant proposal (Figure 15.1).

Objectives describe specific, operational, and measurable short-term or intermediate accomplishments that will help achieve a goal. A project objective should be SMART, which is an acronym that stands for

- Specific (what you are going to achieve? Use action verbs, be concrete)

- Measurable (when will you know you have reached your objective? (i.e., numeric, quantity, cost))

- Achievable (are your objectives achievable?)

- Realistic (do you have the resources to achieve your objectives, i.e., personnel, facilities, equipment, etc.)

- Time limited (when will you achieve the objectives? i.e., weekly, monthly, or annually)

A project can have outcome objectives (describe an expected result or outcome) and/ or process objectives (describe a process, an activity, or a task). Box 15.13 contains some sample objectives.

Goal and problem statement.

FIGURE 15.1 Goal and problem statement.

Box 15.13 Sample Objectives


Increase the number of students from educationally and/or economically disadvantaged backgrounds graduating from University of Wisconsin Oshkosh (UWO) by 40% during each project year.

Decrease the rate of infant mortality in Winnebago County to at least the state average of 7.5 per 1,000 births within the first 3 years of the Outreach program.


Provide financial support to 50 students per year to increase enrollment of racial and ethnic minority students from rural and underserved areas.

The objectives must be connected to the goal. More specifically, the objectives must be informed by the goals. For each goal, there should be at least two objectives. And, the goals and objectives must be designed to address need(s) identified in the problem statement. Box 15.14 lists some example of how goals and objectives can be related to needs.


I keep six honest serving men /(They taught me all I knew)/Their names are What and Why and When /And How and Where and Who.

—Rudyard Kipling (1865-1923)

Box 15.14 Sample Goals and Objectives Related to a Need


Desired situation: Seniors should be able to maintain independence in their own homes for as long as possible.

Current situation: More than 80% of seniors participating in our survey are living in a nursing home facility that they cannot afford because of lack of assistance in developing living skills and access to health care and service.

Gap: Assistance in developing living skills and access to health care and service is lacking.



Assist seniors in South Side Chicago to maintain independence in their own homes for as long as possible.

1 Increase the ability of 100% of participants to perform daily living tasks.

1 Provide 240 hours of homemaker/chore services per month to 50 senior participants in our program.

1 Organize six modular independent living skills

training sessions per year for 120 senior participants.

1 Provide assistance for transportation needs related to health care and services.

Box 15.15 About the Project Description


- What task(s) will be performed?

- What specific service(s) will be provided?

- What specific activity(ies) will be conducted?


- What is the process or method or strategy that will be used to perform this activity?

- What will be the standards followed?

- What are the guidelines?


- Why is this activity needed?

- To what extent will this activity help solve the identified problem, reach a stated goal, or achieve a set objective (or set of objectives)?


- Who will receive the service(s)?

- Who is/are the beneficiary(ies)?

- Who will perform the activity?

- What qualifications, skills, or experiences do they need or have?

- Who will participate in the activity?

- Who will provide assistance to the activity?


- When will the activity start?

- How long will the activity last?

- A year? A month? A week?

- What day?

- What time?

The project description explains the activities that must be completed to solve the gap identified in the problem statement (Box 15.15). Each activity must be related to at least one goal and one objective. The project narrative should describe:

- What? (What will happen?)

- How ? (What are the methods, strategies, techniques that will be used to make it happen?)

- Why? (Why do you decide to do "what will happen?" )

- Who? (Who will be involved?)

- When? (What is the date or the timeline?)

- Where? (Where will that take place?)

Box 15.16 provides an illustration of one activity, After using the template to organize your thoughts, your project narrative paragraph would be like the following (Box 15.17):





After-school math and reading tutoring

Oshkosh Community Association (OCA) will provide after-school math and reading tutoring sessions.


Only 10% of the schools in the Oshkosh district provide on-site after-school math and reading tutorial services. Their waiting list is 1 0 times the number of students they can service. The site where the tutorial support will be provided does not currently have a tutoring program. Therefore, our program will contribute to increasing the percentage of schools in Oshkosh that provide after-school assistance in reading and math, which is desperately needed to improve the low proficiency of the students, as indicated by the last academic yearly progress report, ranking Oshkosh next to last among the Wisconsin school districts.


At the beginning of a tutoring session, each participant will receive a nutritional snack that conforms with the state nutrition standards for school-based food service. Supervised homework and one-on-one or group tutoring activities will take place after the snack. The length of time spent with any one student will vary with the student's academic situation and needs.


A total of 150 of the school's K-3 students will receive tutoring and a nutritional snack. A tutor will work with groups of 10 students. Each tutor will be required to complete successfully course training and undergo the school district's screening process. The project director will coordinate the snack menus with the school district nutritionist and the school cafeteria supervisor.


After-school tutoring in reading and math will be provided for a 2-hour session three times a week, for 12 weeks, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 3:00 pm to 5:00 pm.


All tutoring services will be provided at the school site. The school has a well-equipped cafeteria that can receive over 300 hundred students, two computer labs, and modern classrooms designed for 24 students.

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