English Self-Efficacy Scale
Self-efficacy is a belief system that each individual develops in all aspects of life. People are unique as they develop capabilities in different domains. Therefore, “the self-efficacy belief system is not a global trait but a differentiated set of beliefs linked to distinct realms of functioning” (Bandura, 2001a, p.1). As a result, self-efficacy scales must take into account the factors that are related to the specific domain being investigated. English would constitute a specific domain. Self-efficacy beliefs differ in level, strength, and generality (Bandura, 2001b). Self-efficacy measurement items should allow for varying levels, complexity, the degree of confidence in the subject’s own capabilities, and a specificity of the capability being investigated. It follows that for self-efficacy instruments to be effective, they must be consistent with and tailored to the domain under investigation. In the present study, students were asked to rate their general confidence concerning their ability to successfully perform on an English course. The items in ESES were modified from the MSLQ developed by Pintrich et al. (1991). The items measure students’ self-efficacy about the overall performance but not specific performance (e.g., listening, reading) on an English course.
ESES contains seven items (items 1, 6, 9, 13, 17, 20, 22). An exploratory factor analysis was also performed to explore the structure of ESES and only one factor was extracted. The variance accounted for by the only factor was 59.33 %. The factor was labeled as English self-efficacy. The Cronbach’s alpha for ESES was .88, indicating that the internal consistency of ESES in the pilot study was highly acceptable.