Task-value enhancement was also significantly predicted by the motivational beliefs of English-learning goal orientations and English self-efficacy (Д4548) = 58.274, p = .000) and the variance explained by these motivational beliefs was 29.8 %. However, the results indicated that only mastery goal orientation was a significant individual predictor of task-value enhancement (в = .489, p = .000). This significant positive coefficient for mastery goal orientation indicates that students who focused on goals related to mastering or understanding the material tended to use the strategy of task- value enhancement more frequently. Performance-approach goal orientation, performance-avoidance goal orientation, and self-efficacy did not uniquely explain a significant amount of variance in task value enhancement.
The amount of variance in volitional control explained by all the motivational beliefs was 12.4 %. The results in Table 5.2 showed that performance-avoidance goal orientation, mastery goal orientation, and self-efficacy were significant individual predictors of volitional control. Hence, students who expressed a greater orientation toward performance- avoidance goals, focused on goals related to mastering or understanding the material, or exhibited a strong sense of self-efficacy for English learning tended to report greater use of volitional control. Performance-approach goal orientation was not a significant predictor of volitional control. This finding is inconsistent with that of Wolters and Rosenthal (2000) in which only mastery goal orientation was a significant predictor of the strategy of environmental control. This finding is also inconsistent with those of previous studies about performance goals in which performance-avoidance goal orientation was found to be related to maladaptive forms of motivation, cognition, and behaviors.