Motivational Regulation and Language-Learning Strategies
With respect to the relations between motivational-regulation strategies and language-learning strategies, the results from correlation analyses indicated moderate to strong relations between students’ motivational regulation and their use of language-learning strategies. Each of the eight motivational-regulation strategies was significantly and positively related to all the language-learning strategies (metacognitive learning strategy, practice strategy and memory strategy) indicating that students who used the motivational-regulation strategies more frequently tended to use the language-learning strategies more frequently as well. Multiple regression analyses using the eight motivational-regulation strategies to predict language-learning strategies show that the eight motivational-regulation strategies explained a significant portion of the variance in all the three types of language-learning strategies. Results also provided insight into the relative importance of different motivational regulation strategies in predicting language-learning strategies. Interest enhancement and selfreward could predict all the three types of language-learning strategies. Mastery self-talk was a significant predictor only for metacognitive strategy. Task-value enhancement was a significant positive predictor for metacognitive strategy and practice strategy. Self-efficacy enhancement alone could significantly predict the use of practice strategy, but is a negative predictor. Performance self-talk, negative-based incentive, and volitional control did not individually account for a significant portion of the variance in any of the language learning strategies. Generally, each of four motivational-regulation strategies based on intrinsic forms of motivation (mastery self-talk, interest enhancement, task value enhancement and selfefficacy enhancement) could predict some of the language-learning strategies. Volitional control could not predict any of the language-learning strategies. Among the three motivational-regulation strategies based on extrinsic motivations (i.e., performance self-talk, self-reward, negative- based incentive), only self-reward could predict the use of languagelearning strategies.