Strategic human resources management is based on the assumption that the abilities and talents of staff can contribute to the effectiveness of an organization and its ability to adapt to change. Therefore, organizations must be proactive in assessing their staff's abilities and talents, and develop appropriate strategic plans to use such resources to meet the demands of their internal and external environments. In other words, organizations should articulate strategic human resources management and planning, which is the development and implementation of goals, objectives, activities, and strategies to anticipate and manage trends, and become more effective and sustainable.

According to the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (2005), strategic human resource planning involves five key steps:

1. Strategic direction: Anticipate future needs and determine workforce necessary to carry out long- and short-term strategic goals and objectives adopted in an organization's strategic plan.

2. Workforce analysis: Analyze specific workforce needs and skills gaps between current and required workforce.

3. Development of an action plan: Develop strategies for recruiting, training, retraining, and restructuring of the workforce based on strategic direction and workforce analysis.

4. Implementation of the action plan: Secure appropriate fiscal resources and execute a human resources action plan.

5. Monitoring, evaluation, and revision: Monitor progress based on specific milestones, and conduct assessments for continuing quality improvement.


Progress in technology has provided organizations with various opportunities to manage personnel activities through human resource information systems (HRIS). HRIS is also referred to as electronic human resource management (e-HRM) or electronic human resources (e-HR). Current literature defines HRIS as a set of information technology tools used by organizations in their management of human resources in order to make strategic decisions (Chinho & Ming-Lung, 2010), gain a competitive advantage (Ball, 2001; Bondarouk & Ruel, 2009), and improve process efficiencies and overall quality (Lin, 2011; Tansley, Newell, & Williams, 2001; Zafra, 2010). According to Hendrickson (2003), HRIS can be briefly defined as integrated systems used to gather, store, and analyze information regarding an organization's human resources. But, as is the case with any complex organizational information system ... it also includes the people, policies, procedures, and data required to manage the human resources function, (p. 381)

HRIS helps an organization follow human resources legislations and guidelines, monitor employee performance, monitor the ability to provide benefits, and ensure that payments to personnel are made accurately and in a timely manner. A generic HRIS includes components related to personnel management, time and attendance, payroll, and benefits:

1. Personnel management: To manage job analysis and design, employee screening, interview, recruitment, performance appraisals, succession planning, career development, and training. Effective personnel management contributes to employee productivity (Spence & Laschinger, 2008) and quality of services (Khan & Santos, 2002).

2. Time and attendance: To manage and monitor employee scheduling and attendance. This component can help an organization hold its staff accountable, increase productivity, and develop standardization (Caroll, 2008, Shani & Tesone, 2010).

3. Payroll: To manage and administer compensation plans and payroll. Effective payroll management positively affects the health and stability of an organization (Marwick, 2001).

4. Benefits: To keep track of employee benefits, such as health insurance plans, health claims, sick and vacation days, and administration of the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA). Proper administration of benefits contributes to staff retention, helps prevent lawsuits, and positively affects organizational stability (Townsend & Bennet, 2003).

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