INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Information and communication technology has been useful in all aspects of job analysis, recruitment, interviewing, hiring, orientation, staff training and talent developing, performance appraisal, and compensation and payroll, which are all related to human resource management and development. Technology has enabled organizations to create IT-based workplaces that foster talent development, which in turn contributes to the sustainability of an entity. With technology, organizations are able to design opportunities to attract more talented staff, motivating and retaining their existing staff, and strengthening staff commitment.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Information technology may have provided more effective support to finances and financial management of organizations than any other factor one can imagine. Information technology enables financial managers to input financial data quickly and efficiently, perform statistical analyses that would otherwise require much time and manpower, develop financial reports in an expedited manner, and negotiate and make decisions on urgent financial matters.
With information technology, organizations can make electronic transfers of money, and secure transactions that can generate high rates of returns. This applies to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations. Technology provides convenience to the contributors of nonprofit organizations. For example, it is easier for some donors to make a contribution to an organization that offers them the opportunity to make secure transactions online as opposed to writing and mailing a check or making a cash donation. This does not mean that traditional ways of income generation do not matter because of technology. However, this means that people who like the convenience of using technology to make their contribution may be less inclined to do so if that opportunity does not exist with an organization, or they may contribute to a competitor. At the end of the day, whatever makes it more convenient for a donor to give, that's what an organization should do. The point is the convenience that technology provides to clients, contributors, or even the public can only strengthen financial management practices in nonprofit organizations.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND FUND-RAISING: DONOR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
A donor management system (DMS) is an application, a group of applications, or a system that nonprofit organizations use to record, track, and report fund-raising activities. A DMS helps collect and generate information about types of donors, correspondence, relationships with constituents, gifts received, proposals submitted, grants awarded, pledges, volunteers, events, and other similar information that can be used for reporting and accountability (Leslie, Berry, Quinn, & Bernard, 2011). Nowadays, there are several DMSs that are available to nonprofit organizations to streamline their operations and improve their fund-raising performance (Blackbaud, 2013; Leslie, 2013). A DMS enables a nonprofit organization to maintain a centralized fund-raising operation and thus improves their ability to generate and share information that is critical to increasing fund-raising performance. In fact, more and more donors put greater pressure for accountability on organizations receiving their donations. Donors want to know the purpose of a request for a donation, how the money will be spent, and what the reporting will be on the use of donations. A DMS helps satisfy donor emphasis on performance and accountability (Saxton & Zhuang, 2013). A donor management system helps an organization gather information to justify its purpose to donors, its identity, its commitment to stewardship, and its level of accountability.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY
Emerging technologies, such as neutral networks, geographic information systems group-ware, and Internet applications, are vitally important for nonprofit organizations managers to catch up and keep up with IT. IT supports communication and collaboration, cornerstones of today's nonprofit organization environment. Technology integration provides a method for nonprofits to achieve better service delivery, fund-raising, outreach, and communication outcomes. Nonprofit organizations can use technology uptake to reduce the time it takes to complete services and the cost of conducting them. Technology provides opportunities to reach more clients, advocate for the creation of joint innovations, initiate collaboration with donors and the private sector, and strengthen the ability of an organization to continue to provide vital services over time.
Nonprofits can use information technology to engage in planning, budgeting, staffing, training, or collaborations for IT-related activities and materials. Nonprofit organizations can also use information technology as an asset for grant-seeking efforts and external and internal market research. However, small- and medium-size nonprofit organizations tend to have limited abilities or flexibility to invest in information technology, especially when dealing with restricted funds. One of the strategies that can be used is to (a) identify and use free or low-cost technology resources that are available to nonprofit organizations, and (b) seek technical-assistance and capacity-building grants that would enable them to improve information technology infrastructures and systems. It is always possible to convince donors or even some businesses how technology can best serve their purposes. It is up to nonprofit leaders to convince others to support IT investments for internal efficiency gains, better service delivery, and staff development.