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Bitcoin and Blockchain Security


PrefaceBOOK STRUCTUREBackground on Digital PaymentsPAYMENT SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURESECURITY AND PRIVACY IN PAYMENTSSecurityPrivacyCombining Security and PrivacySECURITY IN PAYMENT SYSTEMS PRIOR TO BITCOINCommon Payment System CharacteristicsLiveliness of the Interaction with the BanksMediator-Based ServicesSupport for MicropaymentsPrivacy-preserving Payments Due to the Research CommunityDigital CashCredit Card-Based Payment ProtocolsMicropaymentsOther Privacy-Preserving PaymentsDeployed Payment SystemsZero-Knowledge SystemsPayPalIBM MicropaymentsPeppercoinM-PesaSUMMARYReferencesBitcoin Protocol SpecificationOVERVIEW OF BITCOINBUILDING BLOCKS AND CRYPTOGRAPHIC TOOLSCryptographic Hash FunctionsMerkle TreesECDSABITCOIN DATA TYPESScriptsAddressesTransactionsSupported Transaction TypesScript ExecutionTransaction Change and FeesLocktimeBlocksBlockchainProof-of-WorkBITCOIN ARCHITECTURENode TypesMinerFull NodeLightweight ClientsPeer-to-Peer Overlay NetworkPeer DiscoveryPeer ConnectionBlock SynchronisationDedicated Relay NetworksAlert MechanismSCALABILITY MEASURES IN BITCOINRequest Management SystemStatic Time-outsRecording Transaction AdvertisementsInternal Reputation Management SystemReferencesSecurity of Transactions in BitcoinSECURITY OF CONFIRMED TRANSACTIONSTransaction VerificationEclipse Attacks in BitcoinImplicationsCountermeasuresDenying the Delivery of TransactionsPossible CountermeasuresTransaction ConfirmationSelfish MiningTransaction Confirmation TimeSECURITY OF ZERO-CONFIRMATION TRANSACTIONS(In-)Security of Zero-Confirmation TransactionsFinney AttackPossible CountermeasuresAdopting a Listening PeriodInserting Observers in the NetworkRefusing Incoming ConnectionsIncreasing the Number of NeighborsInflicting Penalties on Misbehaving NodesNot Advertising TRyForward First Double-Spend AttemptBITCOIN FORKSExploiting Forks to Double-SpendFork ResolutionReferencesPrivacy in BitcoinUSER PRIVACY IN BITCOINProtocol-Based Privacy Quantification in BitcoinExploiting Existing Bitcoin Client ImplementationsSumming Up: Behavior-Based AnalysisCoin TaintingRisks of Holding Tainted BitcoinsNETWORK-LAYER ATTACKSRefresher on Bitcoin P2P Network SetupPrivacy Leakage over the Bitcoin NetworkENHANCING PRIVACY IN BITCOINMixing ServicesCoinJoinPrivacy-Preserving Bitcoin Protocol EnhancementsModelCryptographic primitivesZeroCoinExtending ZeroCoin: EZC and ZeroCashExtended ZeroCoinZeroCashSUMMARYReferencesSecurity and Privacy of Lightweight ClientsSIMPLE PAYMENT VERIFICATIONOverviewSpecification of SPV ModeSecurity Provisions of SPV modePRIVACY PROVISIONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT CLIENTSBloom FiltersPrivacy ProvisionsLeakage Due to the Network LayerLeakage Due to the Insertion of Both Public Keys and Addresses in the Bloom filterCountermeasureLeakage under a Single Bloom FilterPoorly-populated Bloom FiltersLeakage under Multiple Bloom FiltersTwo Bloom FiltersBi and B2 Belong to Different UsersB1 and B2 Belong to the Same UserMultiple Bloom FiltersSummaryCountermeasure of Gervais et al.ReferencesBitcoin’s EcosystemPAYMENT PROCESSORSBITCOIN EXCHANGESBITCOIN WALLETSSecuring Bitcoin WalletsSecurity of Online WalletsSecurity of Hardware WalletsSecurity of Paper WalletsMultisig TransactionsTrusted ComputingMulticloud StorageMINING POOLSImpact of Mining Pools on De-centralizationBETTING PLATFORMSPROTOCOL MAINTENANCE AND MODIFICATIONSBitcoin Improvement ProposalsThe Need for Transparent Decision MakingCONCLUDING REMARKSReferencesApplications and Extensions of BitcoinEXTENSIONS OF BITCOINLitecoinDogecoinNamecoinDigital AssetsAPPLICATIONS OF BITCOIN’S BLOCKCHAINRobust Decentralized StorageAuthenticated StoragePermacoinDecentralized Identity ManagementTime-Dependent Source of RandomnessSmart ContractsMaking a DepositDispute MediationManaging Multiuser FundsUsing Smart Contracts for CrimeCONCLUDING REMARKSReferencesBlockchain Beyond BitcoinSIDECHAINSETHEREUMAccountsTransactions and MessagesState and Transaction ExecutionBlocksMining and BlockchainOPEN BLOCKCHAINMembership ServicesConsensus MechanismConfidentiality of TransactionsAuditing CapabilitiesPossible ExtensionsRIPPLEConsensus and Validating ServersCOMPARISON BETWEEN BITCOIN, RIPPLE, ETHEREUM, AND OPEN BLOCKCHAINConsensus SpeedPrivacy and AnonymityClients, Protocol Update, and MaintenanceDecentralized DeploymentReferencesConcluding RemarksSUMMARYOUTLOOK
 
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