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Exposome

the exposome is currently defined as the totality of all human environmental exposures (exogenous and endogenous) from conception to death.31 the National Institute of Environmental Health sciences32 has developed a broad definition of environmental exposures, which includes chemical exposures, diet, physical activity, stress, pre-existing disease, and the use of substances that could lead to addictive consequences. the concepts of measuring all exposure events over time is certainly difficult, particularly considering the dynamic aspects of exposures leading to adverse outcomes; however, much effort is being given to establishing biomarkers related to the exposome on both a population and individual basis. these biomarkers are being evaluated for refining exposure assessments in risk assessments; providing correlations leading to exposure-disease associations, particularly in data from epidemiological studies; the potential identification of susceptible individuals or groups; using human data rather than extrapolations from animal data; and potentially identifying interventions in reducing certain exposures and/or treating the adverse outcome.32 One of the major efforts to define and understand environmental exposures is the published biomonitoring studies, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals with updated tables33 provides national (USA) biomonitoring data (serum and urinary levels) on 265 chemicals from subsets of the population. the website contains details of data sources and data analysis, interpretation of report data, and chemical and toxicological information. Bell and Edwards34 have described a workflow, a frequent itemset mining approach, to identify relationships between chemicals and health biomarkers and disease. Currently, the most complete information source for toxicology information and exposure identification, including the exposome, is the toxin and toxin-target Database31 (T3DB; www.t3db.ca). the details of T3DB are discussed in Chapter 2.

 
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