Data resources for AEP development
The recent advances and innovations in exposure science are enabling a shift to a distinct discipline that revolutionizes toxicity testing strategies and conventional risk assessment by facilitating AEP development. Using emerging monitoring instrumentation, large numbers of chemicals can now be detected at extremely low concentrations in environmental and biological samples, providing relevant exposure information that can be integrated into toxicity testing strategies. Novel biomarkers are being developed to inform our understanding of exposures, early biological effects, and susceptibility to chemical and non-chemical stressors leading to adverse outcomes. One such example is in how biomarkers in tooth layers are able to provide information regarding prenatal and early life exposures to reconstruct and establish relationships between these exposure episodes and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children.5^59 Non-targeted approaches (e.g. chemical analysis of house dust samples) can also be used to advance our understanding of the human exposome by serving as indicators of indoor exposure and direct exposure.60 In addition to exposure characterization, these advancements in the exposure science field allow for integration of exposure data with hazard information obtained from in vitro toxicity screening assays and/or disease outcomes found in epidemiologic studies to provide insight into the complex relationship between multiple exposures and multiple health outcomes.