TK/TD modeling rests on sound pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles. While the application of modeling techniques to explain toxicoki- netic and toxicodynamic outcomes is not as widespread and abundant as the description of clinical pharmacology, efficacy, or safety outcomes, it is expected that this area will continue to grow, as regulatory agencies continue to encourage the application of these techniques, and as computer science continues to advance, both in hardware and software. Moreover, while little experimental work has been performed in the area of clinical drug-herb interactions using either experimental or modeling and simulation analyses, the potential effects of drug-herb interactions are significant: reductions in drug levels can cause lack of efficacy which may result in breakthrough symptoms and increases in drug levels can lead to unexpected adverse drug reactions. Here, modeling and simulation could be used to estimate these potential effects.


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