TCMID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrative Database for Herb Molecular Mechanism Analysis)

TCMID is composed of six data fields, namely prescriptions, herbs, ingredients, targets, drugs and diseases.16 the information and data in those fields were integrated from related web-based databases and text mining of books and published articles.16 Currently, TCMID contains 8159 herbs, 25 210

(A) Drug-target and (B) drug-disease networks in TCMSP

Figure 10.3 (A) Drug-target and (B) drug-disease networks in TCMSP.

ingredients, 6826 drugs, 17 521 targets, 46 914 prescriptions, and 3791 diseases. Furthermore, TCMID provides network displays such as herb-disease network, herbal ingredient-target interaction network, and herbal ingredient-target-disease-drug network, which will facilitate the study of combination therapy and understanding of the underlying mechanisms for TCM at molecular level.16

The homepage ( of TCMID is shown in Figure 10.5A. The information may be searched by prescriptions, herbs, ingredients, targets, drugs or diseases. Inputting “Radix Glycyrrhizae” as the query in TCM will not generate a result. The Pinyin name “gan cao” will generate the search result as shown in Figure 10.5B. Herb-disease network data may be downloaded from TCMID.

(a) the homepage of tCMGeneDIt and (B) search results

Figure 10.4 (a) the homepage of tCMGeneDIt and (B) search results.

TTD (Therapeutic Target Database)

TTD Version 5.1.01 provides 397 successful and 1469 research targets, and 2071 approved and 17 803 investigative drugs.17 Among these, it contains 1008 approved drugs derived from nature, 369 clinical trial drugs and 119 preclinical drugs, together with their species origin information. Furthermore,

(A) The homepage of TCMID (B) search results

Figure 10.5 (A) The homepage of TCMID (B) search results.

Data Sources for Herbal and Traditional Medicines 253

it includes cross-links of most TTD target and drug entries to the corresponding pathway entries of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, Meta- Cyc/BioCyc, Netpath, pANTHER (protein Analysis through evolutionary Relationships) pathway, the pathway Interaction Database (piD), pathWhiz, Reactome and Wikipathways, as well as convenient access to multiple targets and drugs cross-linked to each of these pathway entries.17 TTD is accessible at All data are available for users to download.

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