Notes

  • 1. Mustafa Aksakal, The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2008), Eugene Rogan, The Fall of the Ottomans: The Great War in the Middle East, 1914 1920 (New York: Basic Books, 2015).
  • 2. Mesut Uyar, “Ottoman Arab Officers between Nationalism and Loyalty,” War in History, 20:4 (2013), 538.
  • 3. Dr. Mesut Uyar, by a careful examination of formerly closed Ottoman mili tary archives, has shown that officers of Arab origin comprised 20 30 per cent of the officer corps and served throughout the war with distinction. Very few deserted. Sulayman Musa, al Murasalat al Tarikhiyya: al Thawra al cArabiyya al Kubra (Amman: al Mu’allif, 1973), p. 100, reproduces a let ter sent from Cemal Pa§a to Jacfar al cAskari begging him to rejoin the Ottoman army, and pointing out the evidence of British deceit displayed in the leaked Sykes Picot accord.
  • 4. BNA FO 406/41, SECRET report n. 37, Damascus, October 15, 1919. This report must refer to Taha al Hashimi.
  • 5. BNA CO 730/150/6, “Profiles and Assessments,” “YASIN PASHA AL HASHIMI,” 1932. Sami Sabit (Karaman) Pa§a was a general of Damascene origin who retreated north with Kemal, took part in the Anatolian insur gency, and served in the army of the Turkish Republic into the 1930s.
  • 6. Phebe Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi: The Rise and Fall of a Nationalist (A Study of the Nationalist Leadership in Iraq, 1920 1936),” unpublished PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 1966, p. 68.
  • 7. Interview with granddaughter in law May Ziwar al Daftari, London, May 8, 2016, and May al Daftari’s forthcoming book, Yasin al Hashimi: Sira wa dhikrayat. Ms. al Daftari conducted extensive interviews with Nicmat Yasin al Hashimi al Daftari in the early 1990s. Nuri al Sacid, Mudhakkirat Nuri al Sacid cAn al Harakat al cAskariyya lil Jaysh al cArabi fi al Hijaz wa Suriyya, 1916 1918: al Fariq al Rukn Nuri al Sacid cala tullab Kulliyyat al Arkan bi Baghdad fi Mayis 1947 (Beirut: al Dar al cArabiyya lil Mawsucat, 1987); also see Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 71.
  • 8. BNA FO371/5043, “Intelligence on Mustapha Kemal,” E1337 de Robeck to Curzon, February 14, 1920, and Robert F. Zeidner, “The Tricolor over the Taurus: The French in Cilicia and Vicinity, 1918 1922,” PhD disserta tion, University of Utah, 1991, p. 135.
  • 9. Zeidner, “The Tricolor over the Taurus,” pp. 137 8.
  • 10. Erik Jan Zhrcher, “The Vocabulary of Muslim Nationalism,” International Journal of the Sociology of Science, 137 (1999), 81 92.
  • 11. James Gelvin, Divided Loyalties: Nationalism and Mass Politics in Syria at the Close of Empire (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).
  • 12. Philip S. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920 1945 (Princeton University Press, 1987), p. 98.
  • 13. James Gelvin, Divided Loyalties: Nationalism and Mass Politics at the Close of Empire (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), pp. 20 2.
  • 14. Zeidner, “Tricolor,” p. 150.
  • 15. Ryan Gingeras, Sorrowful Shores: Violence, Ethnicity, and the End of the Ottoman Empire 1912 1923 (Oxford University Press, 2011).
  • 16. LN R13, Milner to Cecil, November 6, 1919.
  • 17. BNA WO 32/5730, SECRET cipher. WO to G.H.Q (Allenby) 27.11.1919.
  • 18. BNA WO 158/766 Central Staff Intelligence, “The Nationalist Movement in Turkey,” October 28, 1919.
  • 19. BNA WO 158/766, Central Staff Intelligence, appendices, A, B, C, procla mations and speeches of the nationalist congresses, November 1919.
  • 20. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, pp. 38 9.
  • 21. Circulars recovered in Aleppo. BNA FO 406/41, No. 191, December 2, 1919. Both were translated into English from the Ottoman original. Kemal’s “misunderstanding” was surely the Arab Revolt.
  • 22. Awad Halabi, “Liminal Loyalties: Ottomanism and Palestinian Responses to the Turkish War of Independence, 1919 22,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 41:3 (Spring 2012), pp. 19 37.
  • 23. Fawzi al Qawuqji, Mudhakkirat Fawzi al Qawuqji, reprint of both volumes of 1975 edition, edited by Khayriyya Qasimiyya (Damascus: Dar al Numayr, 1995), pp. 15 20.
  • 24. BNA FO 406/41, “Situation in Syria,” Meinertzhagen to F.O., November 29, 1919.
  • 25. Qawuqji, Mudhakkirat, pp. 70 1.
  • 26. Jurj Faris, Man hum fi calam al cArabi (Damascus: Maktab al Dirasat al Suriyya wa al carabiyya, 1957), p. 344.
  • 27. For al cAs, see Adham al Jundi, Tarikh al thawrat al suriyya fi cAhd al intidab al fransi (Damascus: Matbacat al Ittihad, 1960), p. 254. For Shallash, see Eliezer Tauber, “The Struggle for Dayr al Zur: The Determination of the Borders Between Syria and Iraq,” IJMES, 23 (1991), 379.
  • 28. British Government, Review of the Civil Administration of Mesopotamia (London: H.M. Stationary Office, 1920), p. 135.
  • 29. Interview with granddaughter in law May Ziwar al Daftari, London, May 8, 2016, and May al Daftari’s forthcoming book, Yasin al Hashimi: Sira wa dhikrayat. Ms. al Daftari conducted extensive interviews with Nicmat Yasin al Hashimi al Daftari, born 1915, in the early 1990s.
  • 30. FO 371/5033 Allenby to FO, March 14, 1920, and FO 371/5034.
  • 31. Satic al Husri,Yawm al Maysalun: Safahat min Tarikh al cArab al Hadith (Beirut: Maktabat al Kishaf, n.d. [c. 1947]), p. 123.
  • 32. Qawuqji, Mudhakkirat, pp. 80 1.
  • 33. Husri, Yawm al Maysalun, p. 83. BNA FO 371/5034, WO, E2338, March 26, 1920. File includes congress proceedings.
  • 34. Khoury, Syria and the French, pp. 99 105.
  • 35. BNA FO 371/5033, March 16, 1920. Parliamentary Debates, advice to prime minister. Corrections in original first draft. The word “freed” was added to replace “conquered.”
  • 36. BNA FO 371/5119, “Interim Report on the Events of 4th April 1920.” Biographical detail on al cArif from al Zirikli, Qamus, vol. III, pp. 245 6.
  • 37. BNA FO 371/5119, “Military Situation in Palestine,” May 7, 1920.
  • 38. The Jewish Chronicle, February 27, 1920, “Zangwill on Weizmann,” with cover letter from the Zionist Organization, in BNA FO 371/5117. Zangwill argued that immigration alone could never make a Jewish majority in Palestine, and that the only solution was the expulsion of the Arabs by force or persuasion. The article was evidently reported in Arabic translation.
  • 39. BNA FO 371/5036, March 1920, Gouraud to Faysal.
  • 40. BNA FO 371/5226, Iraq Revolt, August 1920.
  • 41. BNA FO 371/5226, letter, from Nuri al Sacid to Major Young, April 20, 1920.
  • 42. BNA FO 371/5226, “Public Opinion in Mesopotamia in Regard to Future of Mesopotamia,” May 5, 1920. See Orit Bashkin, New Babylonians: A History of the Jews of Modern Iraq (Stanford University Press, 2012).
  • 43. Amal Vinogradov, “The 1920 Revolt in Iraq Reconsidered: The Role of Tribes in National Politics,” IJMES, 3:2 (1972), 134 5.
  • 44. LN R58, 1920 3. Relative to Syria and Palestine, Iraqis sent comparatively few petitions to the Mandates Commission.
  • 45. The Times, “A Case for Frankness,” June 15, 1920. New York Times, “British Make Oil Coup,” May 4, 1920.
  • 46. For the make up of rebel forces, see BNA FO 371/5229, July 12, 1920, report of Lt. Col. Leachman, who was killed a month later near Falujah. Also see secret telegram on the cost of suppression, August 30, 1920.
  • 47. BNA WO 33/969, “An Examination of the Cause of the Outbreak in Mesopotamia.”
  • 48. BNA FO 141/552/1, “Situation in Cilicia,” Wratislaw to HC Egypt, February 19, 1920.
  • 49. Zeidner, “Tricolor,” p. 378.
  • 50. BNA FO 608/278, San Remo Conference and Cilicia, April May 1920.
  • 51. BNA FO 608/278, “Copy of the Agreement between Mustafa Kemal and the French,” May 29, 1920.
  • 52. BNA FO 608/278, “Press Extracts and Report of Istanbul High Commissioner,” July 1, 1920.
  • 53. Interview May Ziwar al Daftari, London, May 8, 2016, and May al Daftari’s forthcoming book, Yasin al Hashimi. Ms. al Daftari conducted extensive interviews with Nicmat Yasin al Hashimi al Daftari, born 1915, in the early 1990s.
  • 54. BNA FO 371/5229, political officer, Ramadi to Office of the Civil Commissioner, Baghdad, July 18, 1920.
  • 55. BNA FO 371/5037; see Husri, Yawm al Maysalun.
  • 56. LN R13, San Remo Conference official map, April 1920.
  • 57. LN R41, 1920, Arrete no. 336, “reglementant provisoirement l’organisation administrative de l’Etat du GRAND LIBAN,” Gouraud, September 1, 1920.
  • 58. BNA FO 371/7846, Lebanon electoral law and census results, March 9, 1922.
  • 59. BNA FO 141/552/1, report on chamber debate, Paris, July 11, 1921.
  • 60. BNA FO 141/522/1, Beirut Consul to FO, December 21, 1920.
  • 61. BNA WO 33/969. SECRET, “An Examination of the Causes of the Outbreak in Mesopotamia,” October 1920, p. 25.
  • 62. The Times, letters, “Arab Rights: Our Policy in Mesopotamia, Colonel Lawrence’s Views,” July 23, 1920. Preserved in British, French, and League of Nations archives.
  • 63. James Jankowski and Israel Gerhoni, Egypt, Islam, and the Arabs: The Search for Egyptian Nationhood, 1900 1930 (Cambridge University Press, 1987).
  • 64. Salim Tamari, Year of the Locust: A Soldier’s Diary and the Erasure of Palestine’s Ottoman Past (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011), for wartime and postwar mortality in Palestine.
  • 65. IU, Salname i Nezaret i Maarif i Umumiyye, h1319. Administrative Yearbook of the Ministry of Education, 1901, pp. 966 77.
  • 66. BNA CO 537/849, August 2, 1921, Secret report, Dobbs to Young.
  • 67. Charles Smith, Palestine and the Arab Israeli Conflict: A History with Documents, 5th edition (New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004), p. 109.
  • 68. Khayr ad Din al Zirikli, al Aclam: qamus tarajim li ashar ar rijal wa’n nisa min carab a’l mustafribin al mustastriqin, 8 vols., reprint of c.1950 (Beirut: Dar al cIlm lil Malayin, 1990), vol. VI, p. 45.
  • 69. LN R14, December 29, 1919, Weizmann to Lloyd George.
  • 70. BNA FO 141/439, “Jaffa Disturbance.” File includes telegrams and reports of injuries. “Diary of Events, May 1921,” Samuel to Allenby, August 22, 1922.
  • 71. Zirkili, al Aclam, vol. I, pp. 262 3.
  • 72. The Times, “Concession to the Kemalists,” November 4, 1921.

Interestingly, the appellation “Kemalist” seems to have originated with British intelligence, not the Anatolian nationalists themselves.

  • 73. Peter Sluglett, Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), pp. 74 5.
  • 74. Zirkili, al Aclam, vol. I, p. 41. Keith Watenpaugh, Being Modern in the Middle East: Revolution, Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Arab Middle Class (Princeton University Press, 2012), pp. 175 7, is the best compilation on Hananu’s life and career.
  • 75. BNA FO 371/7846, Consul Aleppo to FO, March 24, 1922.
  • 76. Adham al Jundi, Tarikh al Thawrat al Suriyya fi cAhd al Intidab al Fransi (Damascus: Matbacat al Ittihad, 1960), pp. 101 12.
  • 77. BNA FO 371/7846, Damascus Consul to FO, March 14, 1922. See also Ahmad Djemal Pasha, Memories of a Turkish Statesman, 1913 1919 (New York: George H. Doran, 1922), p. 199.
  • 78. BNA FO 371/7846, telegram, Consul Palmer to FO, April 8, 1922.
  • 79. BNA FO 371/7847, petition in the name of the Women of Damascus, signed wives of Dr. Shahbandar, Hasan al Hakim, Munir Shakyk al cArd, and Sacid Haydar, April 10, 1922.
  • 80. BNA FO 371/7847, Damascus Consul to FO, “Anti French attitude here,” May 4, 1922.
  • 81. Quoted in Awad Halabi, “Liminal Loyalties: Ottomanism and Palestinian Responses to the Turkish War of Independence, 1919 22,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 41:3, Spring 2012, p. 28.
  • 82. BNA FO 371/7847, Damascus consul to FO, June 27, 1922.
  • 83. Hanna Abi Rashid, Jabal al duruz (Cairo: 1925, reprint, Beirut: 1961), pp. 180 1. He reproduced the letters. The version of this event I recounted in The Great Syrian Revolt and the Rise of Arab Nationalism (University of Texas Press, 2005), is more dramatic, but less accurate.
  • 84. BNA FO 371/7847, Damascus consul to FO, August 8, 1922.
  • 85. LN R22, original Arabic petition from Sultan al Atrash, with cover letter and French translation by Shakib Arslan, September 9, 1922.
  • 86. M. Laporte, Chief of French Mission at Adana, quoted in BNA FO 371/ 7848, “Military Operations to FO,” September 14, 1922.
  • 87. The Times, “Entente Powers Agreed: Straits to be Defended,” September 16, 1922.
  • 88. The Times, “Stop the War: Labour Denounces the Premier,” and “‘Leave Constantinople’: Sir C. Townshend on Peace in the East,” September 21, 1922. M.P. Townshend was the general in command of the 1915 surren der to an Ottoman force at al Kut. He had just taken a journey through Syria and Anatolia and met Mustafa Kemal. See BNA FO 71/7848, “Report of the Situation in Syria,” September 14, 1922.
  • 89. BNA FO 371/7848, “Report on the Situation in Syria,” September 14, 1922.
  • 90. This is a central argument of Erik Jan Ztircher’s The Unionist Factor: The Role of the Committee of Union and Progress in the Turkish National Movement (1905 1926) (Leiden: Brill, 1984), p. 119.
  • 91. Taha al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat Taha al Hashimi, 1919 1943 (Beirut: Dar al Talica, 1967), pp. 66 9.
  • 92. BNA CO 730/150/6, “Profiles and Assessments,” YASIN PASHA AL HASHIMI.
  • 93. BNA CO 730/150/6, “Profiles and Assessments,” “YASIN PASHA AL HASHIMI,” 1932.
  • 94. Khayri al cUmari, Shakhsiyat cIraqiyya (Baghdad: al Dar al cArabiyya li l mawsu‘at, 2008, reprint of Baghdad, 1927), p. 109. Quoted in Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 116.
  • 95. Peter Sluglett, Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), p. 78.
  • 96. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq, p. 85.
  • 97. Khayr ad Din al Zirkili, al Aclam: qamus tarajim li ashar ar rijal wa’n nisa min carab a’l mustacribin al mustastriqin, 8 vols., reprint of c. 1950 (Beirut: Dar al cIlm lil Malayin, 1990), vol. IV, pp. 151 2. cAbd al Muhsin gradu ated first in his class in 1898. Eugene Rogan’s article on the A§iret Mektabi lists both brothers: “A§iret Mektebi Abdtilhamid II’s School for Tribes (1892 1907),” IJMES 28, (1996), 89. Rogan’s article is the best investigation of the Tribal School.
  • 98. BNA FO 371/7848, Reports from Aleppo Consul to FO, September 1922.
  • 99. BNA FO 371/7848, Beirut Consul to Curzon, October 31, 1922.
  • 100. Al R’ay al cAmm, September 16, 1922.
  • 101. FO 371/7848, Damascus Consul to FO, September 23, 1922.
  • 102. FO 371/7848, French Intelligence Summary, October 4, 1922.
  • 103. FO 371/7848, telegram, HC Samuel to CO, November 11, 1922.
  • 104. The Times, “The Sultan. Angora Attack on The Porte. Violent Debate,” November 3, 1922.
  • 105. Mustafa Aksakal, The Ottoman Road to War in 1914: The Ottoman Empire and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2008).
  • 106. Christopher Clark, Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 (London: Penguin, 2014).
 
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