Notes

  • 1. LN, Official Journal, Geneva, August 1922.
  • 2. LN R41, “Arrete 336,” September 10, 1920, p. 6.
  • 3. Fawaz Traboulsi, A History of Modern Lebanon (London: Pluto Press, 2007), pp. 80 1.
  • 4. Engin Deniz Akarli, The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861 1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), pp. 148 9.
  • 5. LN R41, “Copie de la Declaration en date du 10 Juillet 1920 du Conseil Administarif du Liban.”
  • 6. Edmond Rabbath, “Courte Histoire du Mandat en Syrie at au Liban,” unpublished ms, n.d., p. 53, quoted in Philip S. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate: The Politics of Arab Nationalism, 1920 1945 (Princeton University Press, 1987), p. 248.
  • 7. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, pp. 33 5.
  • 8. The Times, “Draft of the Syrian Constitution,” August 3, 1928.
  • 9. BNA, FO 684/4, Consul Hole to FO, June 21, 1928. Yasin al Hashimi’s visit provoked both French and British anxiety, and the drafting of at least two secret surveillance reports.
  • 10. BNA FO 684/4, Consul Hole to FO, June 28, 1928.
  • 11. BNA FO 684/4, Damascus Consul Files.
  • 12. LN R2307, “Mandate over Syria,” Sultan al Atrash telegram, July 9, 1930.
  • 13. LN R2280, “Mandate over Palestine, 1929 32.”
  • 14. Weldon Matthews has written the best book to date on Palestinian politics and parties in Palestine during the mandate. Confronting an Empire,

Constructing a Nation: Arab Nationalists and Popular Politics in Mandate Palestine (London: I.B. Tauris, 2006).

  • 15. Charles Smith, Palestine and the Arab Israeli Conflict, 5th edition (New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s), pp. 110 11.
  • 16. LN R17, Report from Palestine Arab Congress, Jamal al Husayni, Secretary General, October 22, 1924.
  • 17. LN R29, Palestine Mandate, “Custody of Holy Places.”
  • 18. The Israeli government demolished the neighborhood and expelled the residents on June 10, 1967, immediately after the 1967 war, establishing a large plaza in front of the Wall.
  • 19. LN R2281, Petition to the Mandates Commission signed by Shakib Arslan, Riad al Solh, and Ihsan al Jabri, December 11, 1928.
  • 20. LN R2181, Petition, December 11, 1928.
  • 21. LN R2181, Report by William Rappard, July 1929, and Government of Palestine, Official Gazette, March 1, 1924. “Ordinance no. 5.”
  • 22. UK Government, Report of the Commission on the Palestine Disturbances of August 1929 (Shaw Commission Report), March 1930.
  • 23. BNA FO 371/13752, Palestine Mandate 1929.
  • 24. BNA FO 371/13752, telegram, no. 13, CO to HC, August 31, 1929.
  • 25. BNA FO 371/13752, telegram HC to CO, September 1, 1929.
  • 26. BNA FO 371/13756, Hole to FO, November 7, 1929, enclosure, “In the Name of the Syrian Population.”
  • 27. UK Government, Report of the Commission on the Palestine Disturbances of August, 1929, March 1930. LN R2283, Palestine Mandate, Shaw Commission, press extracts, correspondence, and minutes of the Mandate Commission.
  • 28. The Times, “Arab Grievances. Delegates Plea for Equal Rights,” April 11, 1930. Yehosua Porath, The Palestian Arab National Movement, 1929 1939: From Riots to Rebellion (London: Frank Cass, 1977), pp. 24 5.
  • 29. LN R2283, press clippings on Palestine, Daily Mail, Viscount Rothermere, “Hand Back the Mandates or the Middle East May be our Ruin,” September 12, 1929.
  • 30. UK Government, Report of the Commission on the Palestine Disturbances of August 1929 (Shaw Commission Report), March 1930.
  • 31. The Times, “Palestine: A Statement of Policy. Dr. Weizmann Resigns,” October 21, 1930, and Smith, Palestine and the Arab Israeli Conflict, p. 128.
  • 32. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq, p. 169.
  • 33. Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 189.
  • 34. BNA FO 684/5, Damascus Consul files, “1930 32,” no. 17, Hole to FO, February 11, 1932.
  • 35. MAE Serie E, Syrie Liban, 211, Lausanne Consulate to MAE, October 14, 1926. Quoted in William L. Cleveland, Islam Against The West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1985), p. 65.
  • 36. Thanks to Laila Parsons for the details of al Qawuqji’s travels after the Revolt.
  • 37. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, pp. 366 7.
  • 38. BNA FO 684/5, “Syria 1930 32,” no. 17, Hole to FO, February 11, 1932.
  • 39. “Arrete 4,” February 12, 1932. BNA FO, 684/5 “Syria 1930 32.” This decree is certainly an ancestor and antecedent for the various similar Syrian “Emergency Law” decrees of the 1960s.
  • 40. Zirkili, al Aclam, vol. VI, p. 304, Stefan Weber, Damascus: Ottoman Modernity and Urban Transformation, 1808 1918 (Aarhus University Press, 2009), vol. I, p. 55, and Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 378.
  • 41. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq, pp. 216 17.
  • 42. BNA UK Treasury Office [TO] 161/1147, 27306/1 Iraq Political Situation, 1926 35, colonial secretary to prime minister, January 30, 1930.
  • 43. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq, pp. 208 9. I base my reconstruction here on Sluglett’s description.
  • 44. Jarida al Ikhwa’ al Watani, Baghdad, August 27, 1931. Quoted in Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 194.
  • 45. Dr. cAbd al Rahman Shahbandar, Mudhakkirat wa khutab (Damascus: Syrian Ministry of Culture, 1993), pp. 145 51. Speech for the opening ceremony of Hizb al shcab, June 5, 1925.
  • 46. LN R2316, Iraq Mandate, report from Rappard on a petition from Kurds of Iraq, March 28, 1931. Sluglett, Britain in Iraq, pp. 212 16.
  • 47. LN R2316, “Mandate over Irak,” and BNA TO 161/1147, 27306/1.
  • 48. LN R2316, “Mandate over Irak.”
  • 49. The Times, “State Visit of King Feisel,” June 20, 1933.
  • 50. Zirkili, al Aclam, vol. II, pp. 64 5. Bakr Sidqi, like most of the Iraqi officers, is usually claimed to have joined the Arab Revolt, but as was often the case, he did not join Faysal till after the war, in Damascus.
  • 51. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 382.
  • 52. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 384.
  • 53. LN, Minutes of the Twenty Second Session, Geneva, November December 1932. The Times, “The Future of Syria,” January 4, 1933.
  • 54. LN R4097, Syrian Unity Petitions, 1932 3.
  • 55. LN, Extracts from the Minutes of the Twenty Fourth Session, Geneva, October 27, 1933.
  • 56. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, pp. 390 1.
  • 57. The Times, “German Jews for Palestine: How Emigration is Regulated,” October 5, 1933.
  • 58. The Times, “Race Pressure in Palestine. The Jewish Influx. Congestion on the Coast,” February 27, 1935. See also BNA FO 371/20030, Weekly Intelligence Survey, SECRET, August 28, 1936. Smith, Palestine and the Arab Israeli Conflict, pp.128 9.
  • 59. Illan Pappe, The Rise and Fall of a Palestinian Dynasty: The Husaynis, 1700 1948 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), p. 249.
  • 60. The Times, “Arab Demonstrations in Palestine,” October 26, 1933.
  • 61. The Times, “Arab Riot at Jaffa. Many Killed and Injured. Government Ban Ignored,” October 28, 1933.
  • 62. The Times, “Palestine Unrest. Disorders in Jerusalem. More Casualties. Three Day General Strike Proclaimed,” October 30, 1933. New York Times, “Arabs Riot Again; Palestine Unrest Spreading Outside: Demonstrations of Sympathy Held in Damascus, Baghdad and Transjordan Towns,” October 29, 1933.
  • 63. The Times, “The Peace of Palestine. Government’s New Power. Order in Council,” October 31, 1933.
  • 64. New York Times, “Dictatorial Rule Set For Palestine: High Commissioner Proclaims Defense Order,” October 31, 1933.
  • 65. Elizabeth Burgoyne, Gertrude Bell from her Personal Papers, 1914 1926 (London: Ernest Benn, 1961), p. 342. Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” pp. 288 9.
  • 66. AUB special collections, Al Kulliya Review, Commencement 1937, and al cUrwa, no. 1, December 1936.
  • 67. May al Daftari’s forthcoming book, Yasin al Hashimi: Sira wa dhikrayat, reproduces family letters. Ms. Al Daftari graciously provided me with a copy and a translation of this letter.
  • 68. Written when Yasin al Hashimi was in the third or fourth month of his sec ond prime ministership.
  • 69. Muhsin Abu Tabikh, Kitab Mabadi wa Rijal (Damascus: Matbact Abu Zaydan, 1938), p. 39, and Muhsin Abu Tabikh, Mudhakkirat al Sayyid Muhsin Abu Tabikh (Beirut: al Mu’assasa al cArabiyya lil Dirasat wa al Nashr, 2001), pp. 315 16.
  • 70. US Dept. of State, Consular Dispatch, Baghdad March 6, 1935, 890g.00/322. Quoted in Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 291.
  • 71. Al Majala al cAskariyya, 7 vols. (Baghdad, 1929 1941).
  • 72. Taha al Hashimi, Mudhakkirat Taha al Hashimi, 1919 1943 (Beirut: Dar al Talica, 1967), pp. 6 7.
  • 73. Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 295.
  • 74. The insight originates with Phebe Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 301.
  • 75. US Dept. of State, Consular Dispatch, April 4, 1935, 890g.00/326. Quoted in Marr, “Yasin al Hashimi,” p. 309.
  • 76. Khaludun S. Husri, “Iraq from Independence to Coup d’Etat 1930 36,” Unpublished PhD dissertation, American University of Beirut, 1972, p. 195.
  • 77. cAbd al Razzaq Hasani, Tarikh al Wizarat Al cIraqiyya (Sidon: Irfan, 1958), vol. IV, pp. 125 7.
  • 78. Laila Parsons’ life of al Qawuqji, The Commander: Fawzi al Qawuqji and the Fight for Arab Independence, 1914 1948 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2016), based partly on private papers and family documents, vividly reveals this story. Also see Qawuqji, Mudhakkirat, pp. 172 3.
  • 79. Qawuqji, Mudhakkirat, pp. 178 9.
  • 80. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 400.
  • 81. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 388.
  • 82. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 393.
  • 83. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 443.
  • 84. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 453.
  • 85. The Times, “Race Pressure in Palestine. The Jewish Influx. Congestion on the Coast,” February 27, 1935.
  • 86. Khoury, Syria and the French Mandate, p. 447.
 
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